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Volume 13, Number 8—August 2007

Dispatch

Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death

David Baud*†, Vincent Thomas*, Aliaa Arafa†, Lesley Regan†, and Gilbert Greub*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; †St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK;

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Table 2

Characteristics of patients in the study according to their Waddlia serostatus

Waddlia negative* (n = 341) Waddlia positive† (n = 97) p value
Age, y
Median (interquartile range) 33 (28–37) 36 (31–39) <0.001
No. pregnancies
1 107 (31.4) 15 (15.5)
2 62 (18.2) 16 (16.5) 0.006‡
>2 172 (50.4) 66 (68)
Mean (SD)
3.2 (2.6)
4 (3.1)
0.005
Parity
0 108 (31.7) 54 (55.7)
1 156 (45.8) 29 (29.9) 0.001‡
2 49 (14.4) 5 (5.2)
>2 28 (8.2) 9 (9.3)
Mean (SD)
1.04 (1.04)
0.7 (1)
<0.001
Miscarriages
Early (<12 wk) 170 (49.9) 81 (83.5) <0.001
Late (>12 wk) 47 (13.8) 17 (17.5) 0.36
Stillbirth (>24 wk) 12 (3.5) 3 (3.1) 1
Alive child
228 (66.9)
40 (41.2)
<0.001
Ethnicity
White 184 (54) 62 (63.9) 0.08
Black 52 (15.3) 15 (15.5) 0.96
Asian 70 (20.5) 13 (13.4) 0.11
Other
29 (8.5)
7 (7.2)
0.68
Contact with animals 76 (22.3) 34 (35.1) 0.011
Cat 42 (12.3) 18 (18.6) 0.12
Dog 35 (10.3) 14 (14.4) 0.25
Fish 6 (1.8) 3 (3.1) 0.42
Rodent 7 (2.1) 2 (2.1) 1
Other
12 (3.5)
3 (3.1)
1
Noninfectious miscarriage causes 97 (28.5) 19 (19.6) 0.08
Autoimmune disease 19 (5.6) 1 (1) 0.09
Hypertensive disorder 8 (2.4) 3 (3.1) 0.71
Endocrine pathology 13 (3.8) 2 (2.1) 0.54
Anatomic abnormalities
4 (1.2)
2 (2.1)
0.62
Additional serologies (titers)
Chlamydia trachomatis (IgG>50) 49 (14.7) 14 (14.3) 0.98
Clamydophila pneumoniae (IgG>64) 161 (47.2) 38 (39.2) 0.16
Cp. psittaci (IgG>1/64) 20 (5.9) 6 (6.2) 1

*Patients with a Waddlia immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer <64 (n = 338) or not confirmed by Western blot analysis (n = 3).
†Patients with a Waddlia IgG titer >64 and confirmed by Western blot analysis.
‡p value for ordered categories (Pearson χ2 test).

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