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Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007

Research

Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China

Lei Yan*1, Li-Qun Fang*1, Hua-Guo Huang*, Long-Qi Zhang*, Dan Feng†, Wen-Juan Zhao†, Wen-Yi Zhang†, Xiao-Wen Li*, and Wu-Chun Cao†1Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; †State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing, People’s Republic of China;

Main Article

Table 1

HFRS incidence at different levels of landscape elements, China*

Incidence (95% CI)† p value‡ Odds ratio (95% CI)
Elevation, m
<100§ 3.48 (3.41–3.52) 1.00
100–200 7.29 (7.16–7.43) <0.001 2.10(2.05–2.16)
201–500 5.17 (5.09–5.26) <0.001 1.49(1.46–1.53)
501–1,000 2.97 (2.88–3.06) <0.001 0.86(0.83–0.89)
1001–1,500 1.76 (1.71–1.88) <0.001 0.36(0.34–0.38)
1,501–2,000 0.32 (0.27–0.38) <0.001 0.09(0.08–0.11)
2,001–3,000 0.85 (0.75–0.96) <0.001 0.24(0.22–0.28)
>3,000
0.71 (0.53–0.92)
<0.001
0.20(0.15–0.27)
NDVI <0.001‡
0–0.1§ 1.14 (1.06–1.23) 1.00
0.1–0.2 4.21 (4.13–4.29) <0.001 3.69 (3.42–3.99)
0.2–0.3 4.55 (4.51–4.61) <0.001 3.99 (3.70–4.30)
>0.3
1.43 (1.36–1.50)
<0.001
1.25 (1.15–1.37)
Precipitation, mm/y <0.001‡
0–400§ 0.18 (0.14–0.22) 1.00
401–800 6.42 (6.34–6.51) <0.001 36.21 (29.23–45.41)
801–1,200 3.65 (3.58–3.70) <0.001 20.51 (16.56–25.74)
>1,200
2.64 (2.60–2.69)
<0.001
14.91 (12.03–18.70)
Annual cumulative air temperature, °C <0.001‡
0–1,600§ 10.18 (9.96–10.39) 1.00
1,601–3,400 1.44 (1.38–1.51) <0.001 0.15 (0.14–0.16)
3,401–4,500 8.01 (7.89–8.12) <0.001 0.84 (0.82–0.86)
4,501–8,000 2.56 (2.52–2.59) <0.001 0.27 (0.26–0.27)
>8,000
0.19 (0.10–0.34)
<0.001
0.02 (0.01–0.03)
Land surface temperature, °C <0.001‡
<28§ 10.75 (10.51–10.99) 1.00
28–31 2.62 (2.51–2.73) <0.001 0.24 (0.23–0.26)
32–34 2.86 (2.79–2.93) <0.001 0.27 (0.26–0.274)
35–37 4.68 (4.63–4.74) <0.001 0.43 (0.42–0.45)
>37§ 0.98 (0.93–1.03) <0.001 0.09 (0.09–0.10)

*HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; CI, confidence interval; NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index.
†Incidence = number of HFRS cases/100,000 population.
‡p value of each landscape element; others are p value of subdivision analyses.
§Reference group.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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