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Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007
Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 10.80 MB - 167 pages]
Threat of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to Field Biologists Working with Small Mammals
PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 3 pages]
D. A. Kelt et al.View Abstract
Low risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been reported among biologists engaged in fieldwork with rodents. The overall probability of acquiring HPS when working with rodents appears to be 1 in 1,412 (0.00071). Nonetheless, a causal link between HPS and lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) use is suggested by some investigators. However, supporting data are incomplete and consequently misleading. A recent HPS case was assumed to be acquired during rodent-handling activities, although substantial peridomestic exposure was evident. Regulatory groups interpret inadequate data as evidence of the need for rigorous PPE, which can hamper field research and instructional efforts. PPE recommendations should be reviewed and revised to match the risk associated with different types of fieldwork with small mammals.
Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics
PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]
T. D. Hollingsworth et al.View Abstract
A small proportion of air travelers make disproportionately more journeys than the rest of travelers. They also tend to interact predominantly with other frequent travelers in hotels and airport lounges. This group has the potential to accelerate global spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Using an epidemiologic model, we simulated exportation of cases from severe acute respiratory syndrome–like and influenza-like epidemics in a population for which a small proportion travel more frequently than the rest. Our simulations show that frequent travelers accelerate international spread of epidemics only if they are infected early in an outbreak and the outbreak does not expand rapidly. If the epidemic growth rate is high, as is likely for pandemic influenza, heterogeneities in travel are frequently overwhelmed by the large number of infected persons in the majority population and the resulting high probability that some of these persons will take an international flight.
Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America
PDF Version [PDF - 286 KB - 6 pages]
S. R. Dominguez et al.View Abstract
The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People’s Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription–PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.
Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China
PDF Version [PDF - 286 KB - 6 pages]
L. Yan et al.View Abstract
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People’s Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.
Precautionary Behavior in Response to Perceived Threat of Pandemic Influenza
PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 7 pages]
M. Z. Sadique et al.View Abstract
Faced with an epidemic of an infectious disease, persons may take precautionary actions to try to reduce their risk. Such actions include avoiding situations that persons perceive to be risky, which can have negative health and economic effects. Therefore, we conducted a population-based survey of persons’ precautionary actions in response to a hypothetical influenza pandemic. For the 5 European and 3 Asian regions that had been affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome, the pattern of reported precautionary action was broadly similar across the regions; ≈75% of respondents reported that they would avoid public transportation and 20%–30% would try to stay indoors. Some regional differences were noted; Europeans were more likely than Asians to avoid places of entertainment, and Asians were more likely to avoid seeing physicians. This international survey provides insight into what might be expected during an influenza pandemic.
Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon
PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 7 pages]
S. Calattini et al.View Abstract
Simian virus infections of humans are an increasing public health concern. Simian foamy virus (SFV) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in Cameroon. To better understand this retroviral zoonosis in natural settings, we studied persons who lived in southern Cameroon, near nonhuman primate habitats. First we studied a general population of 1,164 adults; 4 were SFV positive according to serologic and molecular assays. Then we studied 85 persons who reported having been bitten or scratched by nonhuman primates; 7/29 (24.1%) of those who had contact with apes (gorillas or chimpanzees) were SFV positive, compared with only 2/56 (3.6%) of those who had had contact with monkeys. These data demonstrate efficient transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings in central Africa, specifically following ape bites, and viral persistence in the human host.
Family Clustering of Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Traditional and New Geographic Regions
PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 6 pages]
V. A. Vladimirtsev et al.View Abstract
Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is an acute, often fatal, meningoencephalitis that tends to develop into a prolonged chronically progressive panencephalitis. Clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data argue for an infectious cause, although multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. To assess mechanisms of disease transmission and spread, we studied 6 multiplex families. Secondary cases occurred among genetically related and unrelated persons in a setting of prolonged intrahousehold contact with a patient manifesting the disease. Transmission to unrelated persons was documented in a densely populated region around the city of Yakutsk in which Viliuisk encephalomyelitis had not been previously known. Initially identified in a small Yakut-Evenk population on the Viliui River of eastern Siberia, the disease subsequently spread through human contacts to new geographic areas, thus characterizing Viliuisk encephalomyelitis as an emerging infectious disease.
HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 5 pages]
C. S. Todd et al.View Abstract
Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody to HCV, and HBsAg. Overall prevalences of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–5.1%), 36.6% (95% CI 32.2%–41.0%), and 6.5% (95% CI 4.2%–8.7%), respectively (N = 464). Among male IDUs (n = 463), risky behavior, including sharing syringes (50.4%), paying women for sex (76.2%), and having sex with men or boys (28.3%), were common. Needle sharing, injecting for >3 years, and receiving injections from nonmedical providers were independently associated with increased risk for HCV infection. The high prevalence of risky behavior indicate that Kabul is at risk for an HIV epidemic. Scale-up of harm-reducing interventions is urgently needed.
Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003
PDF Version [PDF - 193 KB - 8 pages]
M. G. Reynolds et al.View Abstract
For the 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak in the United States, interhuman transmission was not documented and all case-patients were near or handled MPXV-infected prairie dogs. We initiated a case–control study to evaluate risk factors for animal-to-human MPXV transmission. Participants completed a questionnaire requesting exposure, clinical, and demographic information. Serum samples were obtained for analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM to orthopoxvirus. When data were adjusted for smallpox vaccination, case-patients were more likely than controls to have had daily exposure to a sick animal (odds ratio [OR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–13.4), cleaned cages and bedding of a sick animal (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.4–20.7), or touched a sick animal (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2–13.4). These findings demonstrate that human MPXV infection is associated with handling of MPXV-infected animals and suggest that exposure to excretions and secretions of infected animals can result in infection.
Effect of Interventions on Influenza A (H9N2) Isolation in Hong Kong’s Live Poultry Markets, 1999–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 414 KB - 8 pages]
E. Lau et al.View Abstract
Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a recognized source of influenza viruses. Since 2001 and 2003, respectively, a first and second monthly “rest-day” has been implemented in Hong Kong’s LPMs, when stalls are cleared of unsold poultry and disinfected. We assessed the incremental effectiveness of each rest-day and the banning of live quail sales in 2002 in reducing (H9N2) subtype isolation rates for chickens and minor poultry, by using a multivariable Poisson generalized linear model. There was a 58% reduction (p = 0.001) in virus isolation after 1 monthly rest-day in minor poultry compared with 27% (p = 0.22) in chickens. Combining 1 rest-day with the removal of quails further reduced virus isolation in chickens but not in minor poultry. However, an additional rest-day each month did not appear to affect isolation rates for either species.
Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1)
PDF Version [PDF - 1.49 MB - 6 pages]
Y. Yang et al.View Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) subtype H5N1 has caused family case clusters, mostly in Southeast Asia, that could be due to human-to-human transmission. Should this virus, or another zoonotic influenza virus, gain the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission, an influenza pandemic could result. We used statistical methods to test whether observed clusters of HPAI (H5N1) illnesses in families in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, and eastern Turkey were due to human-to-human transmission. Given that human-to-human transmission occurs, we estimate the infection secondary attack rates (SARs) and the local basic reproductive number, R0. We find statistical evidence of human-to-human transmission (p = 0.009) in Sumatra but not in Turkey (p = 0.114). For Sumatra, the estimated household SAR was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%–51%). The estimated lower limit on the local R0 was 1.14 (95% CI 0.61–2.14). Effective HPAI (H5N1) surveillance, containment response, and field evaluation are essential to monitor and contain potential pandemic strains.
Reduced Sensitivity of Influenza A (H5N1) to Oseltamivir
PDF Version [PDF - 264 KB - 4 pages]
J. L. McKimm-Breschkin et al.View Abstract
We tested the neuraminidase drug sensitivity of clade 1 and clade 2 influenza A virus (H5N1). All viruses demonstrated similar sensitivity to zanamivir, but compared to the 2004 clade 1 viruses, the Cambodian 2005 viruses were 6-fold less sensitive and the Indonesian clade 2 viruses were up to 30-fold less sensitive to oseltamivir.
New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco
PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
M. Rhajaoui et al.View Abstract
During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases.
Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents, Taiwan, 1996–2003
PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
P. Chan et al.View Abstract
Analysis of data from Taiwan’s National Tuberculosis (TB) Registry showed that incidence of TB in persons <20 years of age was 9.61/100,000 person-years, biphasic, and age-relevant, with a major peak in persons slightly >12 years. Aboriginal children were 8.1–17.4× more likely to have TB than non-Aboriginal children.
Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
M. Abu Sin et al.View Abstract
In 2005, a marked increase in hantavirus infections was observed in Germany. Large cities and areas where hantaviruses were not known to be endemic were affected. A case–control study identified the following independent risk factors for infection: occupational exposure for construction workers, living <100 m from forested areas, and exposure to mice.
Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species
PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Müller et al.View Abstract
Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.
Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
C. T. Sabeta et al.View Abstract
We recently identified 2 Mokola viruses from domestic mammals (a dog and a cat) in South Africa. These cases occurred 8 years after the last reported case of infection with this virus. Our findings emphasize the endemicity of rabies-related lyssaviruses in South Africa and the need to better understand the epidemiology of Mokola viruses.
Buruli Ulcer Surveillance, Benin, 2003–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 3 pages]
G. E. Sopoh et al.View Abstract
We reviewed Buruli ulcer (BU) surveillance in Benin, using the World Health Organization BU02 form. We report results of reliable routine data collected on 2,598 new and recurrent cases from 2003 through 2005.
Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom
PDF Version [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
G. Leeming et al.View Abstract
We report 4 cases of equine rhinosporidiosis in the United Kingdom. These cases provide evidence of spread of infectious agents from rhinosporidiosis-endemic areas to nonendemic areas by increased international movement of livestock. Surveillance should continue for this infective agent of potential relevance for numerous species, including humans.
Poultry Drinking Water Used for Avian Influenza Surveillance
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Leung et al.View Abstract
Samples of drinking water from poultry cages, which can be collected conveniently and noninvasively, provide higher rates of influenza (H9N2) virus isolation than do samples of fecal droppings. Studies to confirm the usefulness of poultry drinking water for detecting influenza (H5N1) should be conducted in disease-endemic areas.
Endocarditis in Cattle Caused by Bartonella bovis
PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
R. Maillard et al.View Abstract
This study aimed to determine the role of Bartonella as an endocarditis agent in cattle. Bartonella bovis was identified by PCR, gene sequences analysis, and specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon product size in 2 bovine endocarditis cases with high antibody titers, which demonstrates that B. bovis is a pathogen for cattle.
Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4
PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
P. Simmonds et al.View Abstract
Transmission routes of PARV4, a newly discovered human parvovirus, were investigated by determining frequencies of persistent infections using autopsy samples from different risk groups. Predominantly parenteral routes of transmission were demonstrated by infection restricted to injection drug users and persons with hemophilia and absence of infection in homosexual men with AIDS and low-risk controls.
Norovirus and Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
C. Colomba et al.View Abstract
Noroviruses were detected in 48.4% of 192 children (<3 years of age) hospitalized for gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, during 2004; predominant genotypes were GGIIb/Hilversum and GGII.4 Hunter. Of children with viral enteritis, 19.6% had a mixed norovirus-rotavirus infection. The severity of infection was lower for norovirus than for rotavirus but increased in co-infection.
Anaplasma platys in Dogs, Chile
PDF Version [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]
K. Abarca et al.View Abstract
We conducted a 16S rRNA nested PCR for the genus Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia spp. with blood samples from 30 ill dogs in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using groESL gene amplification. We identified Anaplasma platys as 1 of the etiologic agents of canine ehrlichiosis.
Human Metapneumovirus in Children, Singapore
PDF Version [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
L. H. Loo et al.View Abstract
Four hundred specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized in Singapore; 21 of these specimens tested positive for human metapneumovirus (HMPV), with the A2 genotype predominating. A 5% infection rate was estimated, suggesting that HMPV is a significant cause of morbidity among the pediatric population of Singapore.
Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis
PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
N. Lee et al.View Abstract
Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.
Malaria Reemergence in Northern Afghanistan
PDF Version [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
M. K. Faulde et al.View Abstract
Field investigations were conducted in Kundoz Province, an Afghan high-risk area, to determine factors responsible for the rapid reemergence of malaria in that country, where 3 million cases were estimated to have occurred during 2002. Results indicate the presence of nonrice-field–dependent Plasmodium falciparum and rice-field–associated P. vivax malaria.
Rickettsia monacensis and Human Disease, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 3 pages]
I. Jado et al.View Abstract
We identified Rickettsia monacensis as a cause of acute tickborne rickettsiosis in 2 humans. Its pathogenic role was assessed by culture and detection of the organism in patients’ blood samples. This finding increases the number of recognized human rickettsial pathogens and expands the known geographic distribution of Mediterranean spotted fever–like cases.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs with Exudative Epidermitis
PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
E. van Duijkeren et al.View Abstract
Despite a strict control program for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in human medicine in the Netherlands, MRSA was cultured from exudative epidermitis lesions of 4 piglets on a breeding farm, 20 pigs on a supplier farm, and 2 workers on these farms. The MRSA strains were indistinguishable, suggesting direct transmission.
Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel
PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
A. Keysary et al.View Abstract
Sequences from the Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene were detected in 5 ticks representing 3 species (Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Boophilus kohlsi) collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Mount Carmel, Israel. The sequences were all identical to those of Ap-variant 1 strain.
Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 4 pages]
M. T. Anantaphruti et al.View Abstract
We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.
Increase in Clostridium difficile–related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999–2004
PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
M. D. Redelings et al.View Abstract
Reported mortality rates from Clostridium difficile disease in the United States increased from 5.7 per million population in 1999 to 23.7 per million in 2004. Increased rates may be due to emergence of a highly virulent strain of C. difficile. Rates were higher for whites than for other racial/ethnic groups.
Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 2.31 MB - 4 pages]
S. Arai et al.View Abstract
Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription–PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas.
Imported Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 2 pages]
S. Reynolds et al.
Disseminated Bocavirus Infection after Stem Cell Transplant
PDF Version [PDF - 89 KB - 3 pages]
T. Schenk et al.
Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia and Isoniazid Use
PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
P. Loulergue et al.
Failure of Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis during Infliximab Therapy
PDF Version [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Guerrero et al.
Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India
PDF Version [PDF - 97 KB - 3 pages]
R. Mondal and A. Jain
Stray Dogs and Leishmaniasis in Urban Areas, Portugal
PDF Version [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
S. Cortes et al.
Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, China
PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 3 pages]
G. Tong et al.
Recurrent American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
J. Gangneux et al.
Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons
PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
F. Martiniuk et al.
Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper
PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 2 pages]
A. M. Redmond et al.
TaqMan Assay for Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis Variant
PDF Version [PDF - 208 KB - 3 pages]
A. Catsburg et al.
Books and Media
Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition
PDF Version [PDF - 81 KB - 1 page]
J. Goddard and L. Zhou
About the Cover
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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- Page created: July 09, 2012
- Page last updated: July 09, 2012
- Page last reviewed: July 09, 2012
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