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Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007

Dispatch

Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species

Marcel A. Müller*Comments to Author , Janusz T. Paweska†, Patricia A. Leman†, Christian Drosten‡, Klaus Grywna‡, Alan Kemp†, Leo Braack§, Karen Sonnenberg¶, Matthias Niedrig*, and Robert Swanepoel†
Author affiliations: *Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany; †National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, Republic of South Africa; ‡Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; §Conservation International, Cape Town, Republic of South Africa; ¶EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany;

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Figure 2

Results of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test with Vero E6 cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The SARS-CoV diagnostic IIFT kit (EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany) was used with minor modifications: bat and reference human serum specimens were diluted 1:100 (found to be the optimal dilution for bat sera) in sample buffer, and secondary detection was performed with goat-antibat immunoglobulin (Ig) (Bethyl, Montgomery, AL, USA) followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled donkey-antigoat Ig (Dianova, Hamburg, Germany) (A–F) or FITC-labeled goat-antihuman Ig (G–I). Frames A–D, SARS-CoV ELISA–positive bat serum specimens 2, 17, 26, 31; E–F, ELISA-negative bat serum specimens 38 (showing unspecific signals) and 306; G–H, SARS-CoV–positive human control serum specimens A and B; I, negative human serum C. All photographs were taken at equivalent microscope settings. Scale bars represent 20 μm.

Figure 2. Results of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test with Vero E6 cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The SARS-CoV diagnostic IIFT kit (EUROIMMUN AG, Lübeck, Germany) was used with minor modifications: bat and reference human serum specimens were diluted 1:100 (found to be the optimal dilution for bat sera) in sample buffer, and secondary detection was performed with goat-antibat immunoglobulin (Ig) (Bethyl, Montgomery, AL, USA) followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled donkey-antigoat Ig (Dianova, Hamburg, Germany) (A–F) or FITC-labeled goat-antihuman Ig (G–I). Frames A–D, SARS-CoV ELISA–positive bat serum specimens 2, 17, 26, 31; E–F, ELISA-negative bat serum specimens 38 (showing unspecific signals) and 306; G–H, SARS-CoV–positive human control serum specimens A and B; I, negative human serum C. All photographs were taken at equivalent microscope settings. Scale bars represent 20 μm.

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