Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008
International Polar Year
International Circumpolar Surveillance System for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, 1999–2005
|Factor or condition||Alaska, 1999–2005, no. (%)||Northern Canada, 1999–2005, no. (%)|
|Cigarette smoking||223 (44)||54 (40)|
|Alcohol abuse†||201 (39)||50 (37)|
|Chronic lung disease/asthma||139 (27)||26 (19)|
|Diabetes mellitus||71 (14)||22 (16)|
|Immunosuppressive therapy||35 (7)||5 (4)|
|Injection drug use||11 (2)||3 (2)|
|Asplenia||9 (2)||4 (3)|
|Total||509 (100)||135 (100)|
*Risk factors and medical conditions are not mutually exclusive. Each case may have >1 condition reported. Data were not available for Greenland, Iceland, Norway, northern Sweden, or Finland.
†Alcohol abuse was noted in the chart.
2The International Circumpolar Surveillance System for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Working Group: Jean-François Proulx (Department of Public Health, Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada); Robert Carlin (Department of Public Health, Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay, Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Andre Corriveau, Cheryl Case (Northwest Territory Department of Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada); Bryce Larke, Colleen Hemsley (Yukon Health and Social Services, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada); Isaac Sobel, Carolina Palacios (Nunavut Department of Health, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada); Gregory Tyrell, Marguerite Lovgren (National Centre for Streptococcus, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada); Alisa Reasonover, Michael G. Bruce, Tammy Zulz, Dana Bruden, Thomas W. Hennessy, Alan J. Parkinson (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA); Shelley L. Deeks (National Centre for Immunisation, Research and Surveillance, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia); Christine Navarro (Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada); Louise Jette (Quebec Public Health Laboratory, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada); Karl Kristinsson, Gudrun Sigmundsdottir (Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland); Knud Brinkløv Jensen (Institution of the Chief Medical Officer, Nuuk, Greenland); Oistein Lovoll (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway); J. Pekka Nuorti (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland); Elja Herva (National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland); Anders Sjostedt (Umea University, Umea, Sweden); Anders Nystedt (Sunderby Hospital, Lulea, Sweden); and Anders Koch (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark)