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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

Research

Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa

Ademola A. Owoade1, Nancy A. Gerloff1, Mariette F. Ducatez2, Jolaoso O. Taiwo, Jacques R. Kremer, and Claude P. MullerComments to Author 

Author affiliations: University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (A.A. Owoade); National Public Health Laboratory, Luxembourg (N.A. Gerloff, M.F. Ducatez, J.R. Kremer, C.P. Muller); Ogun State Ministry of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria (J.O. Taiwo);

Main Article

Figure 1

Phylogeny of hemagglutinin (A) and neuraminidase (B) genes from 8 HPAI (H5N1) viruses collected in Nigeria during the second half of 2007 (▲), in comparison with previously identified sublineage A (EMA 2), sublineage B and C (EMA 1), and (EMA 3) strains (1,3). The tree was calculated by using the maximum likelihood method implemented in PAUP 4.0 (7). The substitution model was obtained by using MODELTEST (8). Bootstrap values (%) were calculated with the maximum-likelihood method with 1,000 replications and are indicated on key nodes. Scale bars represent ≈1% of nucleotide changes between close relatives. A/duck/Anyang/AVL-1/2001 was used as an outgroup.

Figure 1. Phylogeny of hemagglutinin (A) and neuraminidase (B) genes from 8 HPAI (H5N1) viruses collected in Nigeria during the second half of 2007 (▲), in comparison with previously identified sublineage A (EMA 2), sublineage B and C (EMA 1), and (EMA 3) strains (1,3). The tree was calculated by using the maximum likelihood method implemented in PAUP 4.0 (7). The substitution model was obtained by using MODELTEST (8). Bootstrap values (%) were calculated with the maximum-likelihood method with 1,000 replications and are indicated on key nodes. Scale bars represent ≈1% of nucleotide changes between close relatives. A/duck/Anyang/AVL-1/2001 was used as an outgroup.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

2Current affiliation: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

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