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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008   PDF Version [PDF - 7.87 MB - 155 pages]

Perspective

  • Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers PDF Version [PDF - 110 KB - 4 pages]
    J. W. Le Duc et al.
        View Abstract

    Construction of several new Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories and expansion of existing operations have created an increased international demand for well-trained staff and facility leaders. Directors of most North American BSL-4 laboratories met and agreed upon a framework for leadership and training of biocontainment research and operations staff. They agreed on essential preparation and training that includes theoretical consideration of biocontainment principles, practical hands-on training, and mentored on-the-job experiences relevant to positional responsibilities as essential preparation before a person’s independent access to a BSL-4 facility. They also agreed that the BSL-4 laboratory director is the key person most responsible for ensuring that staff members are appropriately prepared for BSL-4 operations. Although standardized certification of training does not formally exist, the directors agreed that facility-specific, time-limited documentation to recognize specific skills and experiences of trained persons is needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Duc JW, Anderson K, Bloom ME, Estep JE, Feldmann H, Geisbert JB, et al. Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1685-1688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080741
    AMA Le Duc JW, Anderson K, Bloom ME, et al. Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1685-1688. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080741.
    APA Le Duc, J. W., Anderson, K., Bloom, M. E., Estep, J. E., Feldmann, H., Geisbert, J. B....Weingartl, H. (2008). Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1685-1688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080741.
  • Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 4 pages]
    H. P. Schweizer and S. J. Peacock
        View Abstract

    Genetic research into the select agents Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei is currently hampered by a paucity of approved antimicrobial drug–selection markers. The strict regulations imposed on researchers in the United States but not in other parts of the world lead to discrepancies in practice, hinder distribution of genetically modified strains, and impede progress in the field. Deliberation and decisions regarding alternative selection markers (antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial drugs) by the international community, regulatory authorities, and funding agencies are needed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schweizer HP, Peacock SJ. Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1689-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080431
    AMA Schweizer HP, Peacock SJ. Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1689-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080431.
    APA Schweizer, H. P., & Peacock, S. J. (2008). Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1689-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080431.

Research

  • Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska PDF Version [PDF - 205 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Z. David et al.
        View Abstract

    USA300 is the dominant strain responsible for community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in most of the United States. We examined isolates from outbreaks of MRSA skin infections in rural southwestern Alaska in 1996 and 2000 (retrospective collection) and from the hospital serving this region in 2004–2006 (prospective collection). Among 36 retrospective collection isolates, 92% carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes; all carried staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV. None belonged to clonal complex (CC) 8, the CC associated with USA300; 57% were sequence type (ST) 1, and 26% were ST30; 61% were clindamycin resistant. In the prospective collection, 42 isolates were PVL+ and carried SCCmec type IV; 83.3% were ST1, 9.5% were ST30, and 7.1% were ST8. Among 120 prospective isolates, 57.5% were clindamycin resistant. CA-MRSA epidemiology in southwestern Alaska differs from that in the lower 48 states; ST8 strains were rarely identified and clindamycin resistance was common.

        Cite This Article
    EID David MZ, Rudolph KM, Hennessy TW, Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1693-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080381
    AMA David MZ, Rudolph KM, Hennessy TW, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1693-1699. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080381.
    APA David, M. Z., Rudolph, K. M., Hennessy, T. W., Boyle-Vavra, S., & Daum, R. S. (2008). Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1693-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080381.
  • Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 120 KB - 7 pages]
    B. Eker et al.
        View Abstract

    We evaluated risk factors and treatment outcomes associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Germany in 2004–2006. In 177 (4%) of 4,557 culture-positive TB cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were identified as MDR TB; an additional 7 (0.15%) met criteria for XDR TB. Of these 184 patients, 148 (80%) were born in countries of the former Soviet Union. In patients with XDR TB, hospitalization was longer (mean ± SD 202 ± 130 vs. 123 ± 81 days; p = 0.015) and resistance to all first-line drugs was more frequent (36% vs. 86%; p = 0.013) than in patients with MDR TB. Seventy-four (40%) of these 184 patients received treatment with linezolid. Treatment success rates ranged from 59% for the entire cohort (59% for MDR TB and 57% for XDR TB) to 87% for those with a definitive outcome (n = 125; 89% for MDR TB and 80% for XDR TB). Extensive drug susceptibility testing and availability of second- and third-line drugs under inpatient management conditions permit relatively high treatment success rates in MDR- and XDR TB.

        Cite This Article
    EID Eker B, Ortmann J, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Muetterlein R, Centis R, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1700-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080729
    AMA Eker B, Ortmann J, Migliori GB, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1700-1706. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080729.
    APA Eker, B., Ortmann, J., Migliori, G. B., Sotgiu, G., Muetterlein, R., Centis, R....Lange, C. (2008). Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1700-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080729.
  • Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Pennetier et al.
        View Abstract

    The spread of resistance to pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. necessitates the development of new strategies to control resistant mosquito populations. To test the efficacy of nets treated with repellent and insecticide against susceptible and insecticide-resistant An. gambiae mosquito populations, we impregnated mosquito bed nets with an insect repellent mixed with a low dose of organophosphorous insecticide and tested them in a rice-growing area near Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. During the first 2 weeks posttreatment, the mixture was as effective as deltamethrin alone and was more effective at killing An. gambiae that carried knockdown resistance (kdr) or insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance (Ace1R) genes. The mixture seemed to not kill more susceptible genotypes for the kdr or Ace1R alleles. Mixing repellents and organophosphates on bed nets could be used to control insecticide-resistant malaria vectors if residual activity of the mixture is extended and safety is verified.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pennetier C, Costantini C, Corbel V, Licciardi S, Dabiré RK, Lapied B, et al. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1707-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071575
    AMA Pennetier C, Costantini C, Corbel V, et al. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1707-1714. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071575.
    APA Pennetier, C., Costantini, C., Corbel, V., Licciardi, S., Dabiré, R. K., Lapied, B....Hougard, J. (2008). Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1707-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071575.
  • Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 7 pages]
    J. E. Oeltmann et al.
        View Abstract

    In January 2005, tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), was reported among Hmong refugees who were living in or had recently immigrated to the United States from a camp in Thailand. We investigated TB and drug resistance, enhanced TB screenings, and expanded treatment capacity in the camp. In February 2005, 272 patients with TB (24 MDR TB) remained in the camp. Among 17 MDR TB patients interviewed, 13 were found to be linked socially. Of 23 MDR TB isolates genotyped, 20 were similar according to 3 molecular typing methods. Before enhanced screening was implemented, 46 TB cases (6 MDR TB) were diagnosed in the United States among 9,455 resettled refugees. After enhanced screening had begun, only 4 TB cases (1 MDR TB), were found among 5,705 resettled refugees. An MDR TB outbreak among US-bound refugees led to importation of disease; enhanced pre-immigration TB screening and treatment decreased subsequent importation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Oeltmann JE, Varma JK, Ortega L, Liu Y, O’Rourke T, Cano M, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1715-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071629
    AMA Oeltmann JE, Varma JK, Ortega L, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1715-1721. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071629.
    APA Oeltmann, J. E., Varma, J. K., Ortega, L., Liu, Y., O’Rourke, T., Cano, M....Maloney, S. A. (2008). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1715-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071629.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 9 pages]
    N. van de Sande-Bruinsma et al.
        View Abstract

    Our study confronts the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care with the resistance trends of 2 major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in 21 European countries in 2000–2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be supported by surveillance data at national aggregation levels. The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level. Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations. Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

        Cite This Article
    EID van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, Tiemersma E, Monen J, Goossens H, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1722-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070467
    AMA van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1722-1730. doi:10.3201/eid1411.070467.
    APA van de Sande-Bruinsma, N., Grundmann, H., Verloo, D., Tiemersma, E., Monen, J., Goossens, H....Ferech, M. (2008). Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1722-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070467.
  • Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 5 pages]
    A. A. Owoade et al.
        View Abstract

    Eight new full-length sequences from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) from 4 states in southwest Nigeria were analyzed. All gene sequences were more closely related to the first strains found in Nigeria in 2006 than to any strain found outside the country. Six viruses had evolved by at least 3 reassortment events (ACHA/NS, ACNS) from previously identified sublineages A (EMA 2) and C (EMA 1). Our results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) initially imported into Nigeria in 2006 have been gradually replaced by various reassortments. In all reassortants, nonstructural genes were derived from sublineage C with 2 characteristic amino acids (compared with sublineage A). If the high prevalence of reassortants was typical for West Africa in 2007, the absence of such reassortants anywhere else suggests that reintroductions of influenza A (H5N1) from Africa into Eurasia must be rare.

        Cite This Article
    EID Owoade AA, Gerloff NA, Ducatez MF, Taiwo JO, Kremer JR, Muller CP, et al. Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1731-1735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080555
    AMA Owoade AA, Gerloff NA, Ducatez MF, et al. Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1731-1735. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080555.
    APA Owoade, A. A., Gerloff, N. A., Ducatez, M. F., Taiwo, J. O., Kremer, J. R., & Muller, C. P. (2008). Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1731-1735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080555.

Dispatches

  • Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
    A. F. van den Hurk et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine whether relocating domestic pigs, the amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), decreased the risk for JEV transmission to humans in northern Australia, we collected mosquitoes for virus detection. Detection of JEV in mosquitoes after pig relocation indicates that pig relocation did not eliminate JEV risk.

        Cite This Article
    EID van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Johansen CA, MacKenzie JS, Smith GA. Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1736-1738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071368
    AMA van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Johansen CA, et al. Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1736-1738. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071368.
    APA van den Hurk, A. F., Ritchie, S. A., Johansen, C. A., MacKenzie, J. S., & Smith, G. A. (2008). Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1736-1738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071368.
  • Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 418 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Amonsin et al.
        View Abstract

    A surveillance program for influenza A viruses (H5N1) was conducted in live bird and food markets in central Thailand during July 2006–August 2007. Twelve subtype H5N1 viruses were isolated. The subtype H5N1 viruses circulating in the markets were genetically related to those that circulated in Thailand during 2004–2005.

        Cite This Article
    EID Amonsin A, Choatrakol C, Lapkuntod J, Tantilertcharoen R, Thanawongnuwech R, Suradhat S, et al. Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1739-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080683
    AMA Amonsin A, Choatrakol C, Lapkuntod J, et al. Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1739-1742. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080683.
    APA Amonsin, A., Choatrakol, C., Lapkuntod, J., Tantilertcharoen, R., Thanawongnuwech, R., Suradhat, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2008). Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1739-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080683.
  • Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine PDF Version [PDF - 301 KB - 4 pages]
    A. C. Aichelburg et al.
        View Abstract

    We report on an HIV-negative but immunocompromised patient with disseminated acanthamoebiasis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and underlying miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. The patient responded favorably to treatment with miltefosine, an alkylphosphocholine. The patient remained well with no signs of infection 2 years after treatment cessation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, Prosch H, Steuer A, Perneczky G, et al. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1743-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070854
    AMA Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, et al. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1743-1746. doi:10.3201/eid1411.070854.
    APA Aichelburg, A. C., Walochnik, J., Assadian, O., Prosch, H., Steuer, A., Perneczky, G....Vetter, N. (2008). Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1743-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070854.
  • Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
    W. K. Reisen et al.
        View Abstract

    Adjustable rate mortgages and the downturn in the California housing market caused a 300% increase in notices of delinquency in Bakersfield, Kern County. This led to large numbers of neglected swimming pools, which were associated with a 276% increase in the number of human West Nile virus cases during the summer of 2007.

        Cite This Article
    EID Reisen WK, Takahashi RM, Carroll BD, Quiring R. Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1747-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080719
    AMA Reisen WK, Takahashi RM, Carroll BD, et al. Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1747-1749. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080719.
    APA Reisen, W. K., Takahashi, R. M., Carroll, B. D., & Quiring, R. (2008). Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1747-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080719.
  • Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
    T. F. McCutchan et al.
        View Abstract

    Reports of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a monkey malaria, suggest that it and other nonhuman malaria species may be an emerging health problem. We report the use of a rapid test to supplement microscopic analysis in distinguishing the 5 malaria species that infect humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID McCutchan TF, Piper RC, Makler MT. Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080840
    AMA McCutchan TF, Piper RC, Makler MT. Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1750-1752. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080840.
    APA McCutchan, T. F., Piper, R. C., & Makler, M. T. (2008). Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080840.
  • Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
    C. O. Aiki-Raji et al.
        View Abstract

    Three highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 and 4 Newcastle disease viruses were isolated from sick or dead chickens in southwestern Nigeria. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis placed them within H5N1 subclade 2.2.2. Intravenous and intranasal pathogenicity tests produced systemic disease with vascular endothelial cell tropism in chickens.

        Cite This Article
    EID Aiki-Raji CO, Aguilar PV, Kwon Y, Goetz S, Suarez DL, Jethra AI, et al. Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1753-1755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080557
    AMA Aiki-Raji CO, Aguilar PV, Kwon Y, et al. Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1753-1755. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080557.
    APA Aiki-Raji, C. O., Aguilar, P. V., Kwon, Y., Goetz, S., Suarez, D. L., Jethra, A. I....Basler, C. F. (2008). Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1753-1755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080557.
  • Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
    M. D. Zilberberg et al.
        View Abstract

    From 2000 through 2005, hospitalizations with resistant infections (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile–associated disease, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida infection) nearly doubled, from 499,702 to 947,393. Regional variations noted in the aggregate and by individual infection may help clarify modifiable risk factors driving these infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080337
    AMA Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1756-1758. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080337.
    APA Zilberberg, M. D., Shorr, A. F., & Kollef, M. H. (2008). Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080337.
  • Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Del Giudice et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

        Cite This Article
    EID Del Giudice P, Blanc-Amrane V, Bahadoran P, Caumes E, Marty P, Lazar M, et al. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1759-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080288
    AMA Del Giudice P, Blanc-Amrane V, Bahadoran P, et al. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1759-1761. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080288.
    APA Del Giudice, P., Blanc-Amrane, V., Bahadoran, P., Caumes, E., Marty, P., Lazar, M....Delaunay, P. (2008). Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1759-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080288.
  • Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 170 KB - 4 pages]
    N. Nitatpattana et al.
        View Abstract

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003–2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nitatpattana N, Dubot-Pérès A, Gouilh MA, Souris M, Barbazan P, Yoksan S, et al. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1762-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080542
    AMA Nitatpattana N, Dubot-Pérès A, Gouilh MA, et al. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1762-1765. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080542.
    APA Nitatpattana, N., Dubot-Pérès, A., Gouilh, M. A., Souris, M., Barbazan, P., Yoksan, S....Gonzalez, J. (2008). Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1762-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080542.
  • Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 3 pages]
    R. L. Wattier et al.
        View Abstract

    KI virus was detected in respiratory secretions of 8/367 (2.2%) symptomatic and 0/96 asymptomatic children (p = 0.215). WU virus was detected in 26/367 (7.1%) symptomatic and 6/96 (6.3%) asymptomatic children (p = 1.00). These human polyomaviruses may not independently cause respiratory tract disease in young children.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wattier RL, Vázquez M, Weibel C, Shapiro ED, Ferguson D, Landry ML, et al. Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1766-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080394
    AMA Wattier RL, Vázquez M, Weibel C, et al. Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1766-1768. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080394.
    APA Wattier, R. L., Vázquez, M., Weibel, C., Shapiro, E. D., Ferguson, D., Landry, M. L....Kahn, J. S. (2008). Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1766-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080394.
  • Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom PDF Version [PDF - 192 KB - 5 pages]
    W. Sopwith et al.
        View Abstract

    In a study of Campylobacter infection in northwestern England, 2003–2006, C. jejuni multilocus sequence type (ST)–45 was associated with early summer onset and was the most prevalent C. jejuni type in surface waters. ST-45 is likely more adapted to survival outside a host, making it a key driver of transmission between livestock, environmental, and human settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, Fox A, Gee S, Painter M, et al. Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1769-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071678
    AMA Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, et al. Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1769-1773. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071678.
    APA Sopwith, W., Birtles, A., Matthews, M., Fox, A., Gee, S., Painter, M....Bolton, E. (2008). Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1769-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071678.
  • Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 3 pages]
    Q. Hu et al.
        View Abstract

    We characterized isolates from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus epidemics in Vietnam and China in 2007. These isolates showed ≈99% identity at the genomic level. Genetic analysis indicated that they share a discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in nonstructural protein 2, which indicates that identical variants emerged in Vietnam and China.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hu Q, Zhao T, Nguyen T, Inui K, Ma Y, Nguyen TH, et al. Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1774-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071676
    AMA Hu Q, Zhao T, Nguyen T, et al. Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1774-1776. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071676.
    APA Hu, Q., Zhao, T., Nguyen, T., Inui, K., Ma, Y., Nguyen, T. H....Gao, G. F. (2008). Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1774-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071676.
  • Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 4 pages]
    C. M. Olinger et al.
        View Abstract

    We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 19 hepatitis B virus strains from Laos that belonged to 2 subgenotypes of a new genotype I. This emerging new genotype likely developed outside Southeast Asia and is now found in mixed infections and in recombinations with local strains in a geographically confined region.

        Cite This Article
    EID Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hübschen JM, Yousukh A, Samountry B, Thammavong T, et al. Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1777-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080437
    AMA Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hübschen JM, et al. Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1777-1780. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080437.
    APA Olinger, C. M., Jutavijittum, P., Hübschen, J. M., Yousukh, A., Samountry, B., Thammavong, T....Muller, C. P. (2008). Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1777-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080437.
  • Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 121 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Chambers et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared travel histories of case-patients with Cryptococcus gattii infection during 1999–2006 to travel destinations of the general public on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Findings validated and refined estimates of risk on the basis of place of residence and showed no spatial progression of risk areas on this island over time.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chambers C, MacDougall L, Li M, Galanis E. Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1781-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080532
    AMA Chambers C, MacDougall L, Li M, et al. Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1781-1783. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080532.
    APA Chambers, C., MacDougall, L., Li, M., & Galanis, E. (2008). Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1781-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080532.
  • Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Nakamura et al.
        View Abstract

    To test the ability of high-throughput DNA sequencing to detect bacterial pathogens, we used it on DNA from a patient’s feces during and after diarrheal illness. Sequences showing best matches for Campylobacter jejuni were detected only in the illness sample. Various bacteria may be detectable with this metagenomic approach.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nakamura S, Maeda N, Miron IM, Yoh M, Izutsu K, Kataoka C, et al. Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080589
    AMA Nakamura S, Maeda N, Miron IM, et al. Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1784-1786. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080589.
    APA Nakamura, S., Maeda, N., Miron, I. M., Yoh, M., Izutsu, K., Kataoka, C....Iida, T. (2008). Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080589.
  • Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 104 KB - 3 pages]
    M. M. van der Zalm et al.
        View Abstract

    A longitudinal study in 2004 and 2005 detected polyomaviruses WU and KI in 44% and 17% of children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively, in the Netherlands. In some children both viruses were detected for long periods. In several symptomatic children no other respiratory pathogen was detected.

        Cite This Article
    EID van der Zalm MM, Rossen JW, van Ewijk BE, Wilbrink B, van Esch PC, Wolfs TF, et al. Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1787-1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080464
    AMA van der Zalm MM, Rossen JW, van Ewijk BE, et al. Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1787-1789. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080464.
    APA van der Zalm, M. M., Rossen, J. W., van Ewijk, B. E., Wilbrink, B., van Esch, P. C., Wolfs, T. F....van der Ent, C. K. (2008). Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1787-1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080464.
  • New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Kibadi et al.
        View Abstract

    We report 3 patients with laboratory-confirmed Buruli ulcer in Kafufu/Luremo, Angola, and Kasongo-Lunda, Democratic Republic of Congo. These villages are near the Kwango/Cuango River, which flows through both countries. Further investigation of artisanal alluvial mining as a risk factor for Buruli ulcer is recommended.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kibadi K, Panda M, Tamfum J, Fraga AG, Filho AL, Anyo G, et al. New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1790-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071649
    AMA Kibadi K, Panda M, Tamfum J, et al. New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1790-1792. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071649.
    APA Kibadi, K., Panda, M., Tamfum, J., Fraga, A. G., Filho, A. L., Anyo, G....Portaels, F. (2008). New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1790-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071649.
  • Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 4 pages]
    N. Khetsuriani et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case–control study, March 2003–February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C.

        Cite This Article
    EID Khetsuriani N, Lu X, Teague WG, Kazerouni N, Anderson LJ, Erdman DD, et al. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1793-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080386
    AMA Khetsuriani N, Lu X, Teague WG, et al. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1793-1796. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080386.
    APA Khetsuriani, N., Lu, X., Teague, W. G., Kazerouni, N., Anderson, L. J., & Erdman, D. D. (2008). Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1793-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080386.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 107 KB - 3 pages]
    X. W. Huijsdens et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of community-associated USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred in a beautician and 2 of her customers. Eight other persons, who were either infected (n = 5) or colonized (n = 3), were linked to this outbreak, including a family member, a household contact, and partners of customers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Huijsdens XW, Janssen M, Renders N, Leenders A, van Wijk P, van Santen-Verheuvel MG, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071297
    AMA Huijsdens XW, Janssen M, Renders N, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1797-1799. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071297.
    APA Huijsdens, X. W., Janssen, M., Renders, N., Leenders, A., van Wijk, P., van Santen-Verheuvel, M. G....Morroy, G. (2008). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071297.
  • Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Robinson et al.
        View Abstract

    Several Cryptosporidium spp. are known to infect humans, but most cases of illness are caused by Cryptosporidium hominis or C. parvum. During a long-term genotyping in the United Kingdom, we identified 3 unusual Cryptosporidium genotypes (skunk, horse, and rabbit) in human patients with diarrhea.

        Cite This Article
    EID Robinson G, Elwin K, Chalmers RM. Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1800-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080239
    AMA Robinson G, Elwin K, Chalmers RM. Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1800-1802. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080239.
    APA Robinson, G., Elwin, K., & Chalmers, R. M. (2008). Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1800-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080239.
  • Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 145 KB - 4 pages]
    D. Werber et al.
        View Abstract

    We compared 61 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from 448 food isolates with 71 STEC serogroups from 1,447 isolates from patients in Germany. Two thirds (41/61), representing 72% of food isolates, were also found in patients. Serogroups typically isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were rarely found in food.

        Cite This Article
    EID Werber D, Beutin L, Pichner R, Stark K, Fruth A. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1803-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080361
    AMA Werber D, Beutin L, Pichner R, et al. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1803-1806. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080361.
    APA Werber, D., Beutin, L., Pichner, R., Stark, K., & Fruth, A. (2008). Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1803-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080361.

Letters

  • Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Avellón et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Avellón A, Cabrerizo M, de Miguel T, Pérez-Breña P, Tenorio A, Pérez JL, et al. Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080517
    AMA Avellón A, Cabrerizo M, de Miguel T, et al. Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1807-1809. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080517.
    APA Avellón, A., Cabrerizo, M., de Miguel, T., Pérez-Breña, P., Tenorio, A., Pérez, J. L....Trallero, G. (2008). Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080517.
  • Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 121 KB - 2 pages]
    T. G. Besselaar et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Buys A, Gregory V, McAnerney J, Manamela JM, et al. Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1809-1810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080958
    AMA Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Buys A, et al. Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1809-1810. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080958.
    APA Besselaar, T. G., Naidoo, D., Buys, A., Gregory, V., McAnerney, J., Manamela, J. M....Schoub, B. D. (2008). Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1809-1810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080958.
  • Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Biagini et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Biagini P, Dussol B, Touinssi M, Brunet P, Picard C, Moal V, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1811-1812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080862
    AMA Biagini P, Dussol B, Touinssi M, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1811-1812. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080862.
    APA Biagini, P., Dussol, B., Touinssi, M., Brunet, P., Picard, C., Moal, V....de Micco, P. (2008). Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1811-1812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080862.
  • Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 185 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Majoros et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Majoros G, Fehér Z, Deli T, Földvári G. Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080479
    AMA Majoros G, Fehér Z, Deli T, et al. Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1812-1814. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080479.
    APA Majoros, G., Fehér, Z., Deli, T., & Földvári, G. (2008). Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080479.
  • Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
    N. Mokrani et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mokrani N, Parola P, Tebbal S, Dalichaouche M, Aouati A, Raoult D, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1814-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071221
    AMA Mokrani N, Parola P, Tebbal S, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1814-1815. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071221.
    APA Mokrani, N., Parola, P., Tebbal, S., Dalichaouche, M., Aouati, A., & Raoult, D. (2008). Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1814-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071221.
  • Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway PDF Version [PDF - 185 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Mørch et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mørch K, Strand Ø, Dunlop O, Berg Å, Langeland N, Leiva RA, et al. Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1816-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080636
    AMA Mørch K, Strand Ø, Dunlop O, et al. Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1816-1818. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080636.
    APA Mørch, K., Strand, Ø., Dunlop, O., Berg, Å., Langeland, N., Leiva, R. A....Jensenius, M. (2008). Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1816-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080636.
  • Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
    Y. Chen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chen Y, Jou R, Huang W, Huang S, Liu K, Lay C, et al. Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1818-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080003
    AMA Chen Y, Jou R, Huang W, et al. Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1818-1819. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080003.
    APA Chen, Y., Jou, R., Huang, W., Huang, S., Liu, K., Lay, C....Su, Y. (2008). Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1818-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080003.
  • Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Huai et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Huai Y, Xiang N, Zhou L, Feng L, Peng Z, Chapman RS, et al. Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1819-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080509
    AMA Huai Y, Xiang N, Zhou L, et al. Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1819-1821. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080509.
    APA Huai, Y., Xiang, N., Zhou, L., Feng, L., Peng, Z., Chapman, R. S....Yang, W. (2008). Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1819-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080509.
  • Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Kamboj et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kamboj M, Louie E, Kiehn T, Papanicolaou G, Glickman M, Sepkowitz K, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1821-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071321
    AMA Kamboj M, Louie E, Kiehn T, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1821-1823. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071321.
    APA Kamboj, M., Louie, E., Kiehn, T., Papanicolaou, G., Glickman, M., & Sepkowitz, K. (2008). Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1821-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071321.
  • Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
    I. M. Mackay et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mackay IM, Lambert SB, McErlean PK, Faux CE, Arden KE, Nissen MD, et al. Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1823-1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080725
    AMA Mackay IM, Lambert SB, McErlean PK, et al. Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1823-1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080725.
    APA Mackay, I. M., Lambert, S. B., McErlean, P. K., Faux, C. E., Arden, K. E., Nissen, M. D....Sloots, T. P. (2008). Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1823-1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080725.

Books and Media

  • Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 1 page]
    M. Myrmel
            Cite This Article
    EID Myrmel M. Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080819
    AMA Myrmel M. Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1826. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080819.
    APA Myrmel, M. (2008). Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080819.
  • Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
    K. F. Gensheimer
            Cite This Article
    EID Gensheimer KF. Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1826-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.081034
    AMA Gensheimer KF. Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1826-1827. doi:10.3201/eid1411.081034.
    APA Gensheimer, K. F. (2008). Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1826-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.081034.
  • Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe PDF Version [PDF - 185 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Van Gompel and W. Van Bortel
            Cite This Article
    EID Van Gompel A, Van Bortel W. Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1827-1828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080945
    AMA Van Gompel A, Van Bortel W. Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1827-1828. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080945.
    APA Van Gompel, A., & Van Bortel, W. (2008). Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1827-1828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080945.

About the Cover

  • The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1829-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.AC1411
    AMA Potter P. The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1829-1830. doi:10.3201/eid1411.AC1411.
    APA Potter, P. (2008). The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1829-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.AC1411.

Etymologia

  • etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə) PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.E11411
    AMA etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1789. doi:10.3201/eid1411.E11411.
    APA (2008). etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.E11411.

Corrections

  • Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C11411
    AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.C11411.
    APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C11411.
  • Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C21411
    AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.C21411.
    APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C21411.
  • Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C31411
    AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.C31411.
    APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C31411.
  • Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 PDF Version [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C41411
    AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.C41411.
    APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.C41411.
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