Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008
Cost-effectiveness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in the United States
|Parameter or parameter set varied||Values applied in sensitivity analysis||Cost/QALY gained
|Excluding anal, vaginal, vulvar, oropharyngeal cancers, $US||Including anal, vaginal, vulvar, oropharyngeal cancers, $US|
|Vaccine cost per series (base case = $360)||$300, $490||5,811–20,009||4,237–16,587|
|Vaccine efficacy (base case = 100%)||95%, 99%||10,566–11,710||8,374–9,369|
|Cost of cervical cancer, CIN 1–CIN 3, genital warts*||Base case ±25%||6,142–14,446||4,332–11,953|
|Reduction in quality of life due to HPV-related health outcomes||Base case ±50%†||7,720–15,519||6,141–12,135|
|Incidence rates of cervical cancer, CIN 1–CIN 3, genital warts‡||Base case ±25%†||6,999–16,333||5,181–13,379|
|% of health outcomes attributable to HPV vaccine types||Base case ±20%||6,014–17,020||4,400–13,987|
|Discount rate (base case = 3%)||0%, 5%||675–24,901||<0–21,966|
|Time horizon (base case = 100 y)||25 y, 50 y||21,600–81,786||19,943–81,398|
*When key parameter values were varied in the population model of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (excluding herd immunity). QALY, quality-adjusted life year; HPV, human papillomavirus; NA, not applicable; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
†See text and Technical Appendix for details.
‡And, when applicable, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.