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Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008

Research

Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England

Andrew Hayward*Comments to Author , Felicity Knott*, Irene Petersen*, David M. Livermore†, Georgia Duckworth†, Amir Islam*, and Anne M. Johnson*
Author affiliations: *University College London Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London, UK; †Health Protection Agency, London, UK;

Main Article

Table 2

Age-specific hospital admission rates (2003–04, per 100,000) and rate ratios (2003–04 vs. baseline) for invasive community-onset staphylococcal infections, England*

Infection
Age group, y
All
<4
5–14
15–44
45–64
65–74
75–84
>85
Baseline data 1989–90
Abscess/cellulitis
Admission rate 149.3 110.1 45.1 123.2 149.5 216.1 349.5 634.3
Rate ratio (95% CI)
3.0
(2.9–3.0)
1.8
(1.7–1.9)
1.8
(1.7–1.9)
2.7
(2.6–2.8)
3.3
(3.2–3.4)
3.8
(3.6–3.9)
3.5
(3.4–3.7)
4.0
(3.8–4.3)
Staphylococcal septicemia
Admission rate 3.4 2.2 0.7 1.3 2.7 7.4 14.1 28.7
Rate ratio (95% CI)
6.5
(5.7–7.4)
3.8
(2.2–6.3)
5.5
(2.5–12.2)
6.4
(4.7–8.9)
4.6
(3.5–6.1)
5.4
(4.1–7.2)
7.7
(5.7–10.4)
15.2
(8.9–25.9)
Staphylococcal pneumonia
Admission rate 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.7 2.9 5.5 10.0
Rate ratio (95% CI)
5.0
(4.1–6–1)
1.2
(0.6–2.3)
1.3
(0.5–3.2)
4.2
(2.5–6.9)
4.2
(2.5–7.0)
6.0
(3.8–9.7)
9.0
(5.4–15.1)
8.2
(4.2–16.3)
Impetigo
Admission rate 2.2 24.9 4.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4
Rate ratio (95% CI)
5.3 
(4.6–6.2)
6.1
(5.0–7.3)
11.8
(7.6–18.4)
3.6
(2.3–5.4)
2.1
(0.9–4.7)
1.3
(0.3–4.7)
1.3
(0.4–4.1)
3.2
(0.4–28.2)
Bone and joint infections
Admission rate 13.4 18.3 9.2 8.5 14.0 22.8 28.6 40.5
Rate ratio (95% CI)
1.6 
(1.5–1.6)
1.2 
(1.1–1.4)
1.0 
(0.9–1.2)
1.4 
(1.3 –1.5)
1.7 
(1.5–1.8)
2.0 
(1.8–2.3)
1.9 
(1.7–2.2)
2.7 
(2.2–3.4)
Baseline data 1995–96
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Admission rate 1.5 21.3 2.0 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.1 0.1
Rate ratio (95% CI)
4.9 
(4.1–5.8)
6.4
(5.2–7.9)
3.7
(2.5–5.4)
1.7 (
0.5–5.8)
1.9
(0.3–10.2)
3.0
(0.3–29.3)
1.8
(0.2–20.4)
0.2
(0.0–1.6)
Cellulitis
Admission rate 100.3 50.5 22.9 57.4 108.4 181.6 316.5 595.5
Rate ratio (95% CI)
2.0 
(2.0–2.0)
2.2
(2.0–2.4)
1.5
(1.4–1.7)
2.0
(1.9–2.0)
2.0
(1.9–2.1)
2.0
(1.9–2.0)
2.0
(1.9–2.1)
2.0
(1.9–2.1)
Abscess
Admission rate 491.0 59.6 22.2 65.8 41.2 34.5 33.0 38.8
Rate ratio (95% CI) 1.9 
(1.8–1.9) 1.6
(1.5–1.7) 1.5
(1.4–1.7) 2.1
(2.0–2.1) 1.8
(1.7–1.9) 1.7
(1.5–1.8) 1.7
(1.5–1.8) 1.5
(1.3–1.8)

* Years are financial years, April 1 to March 31. CI, confidence interval.

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