Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008
Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 5.78 MB - 179 pages]
Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru
PDF Version [PDF - 119 KB - 8 pages]
S. S. Shin et al.View Abstract
Over the past 10 years, the Peruvian National Tuberculosis (TB) Program, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), Socios en Salud, and US partners have worked to strengthen the national TB laboratory network to support treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. We review key lessons of this experience. The preparation phase involved establishing criteria for drug susceptibility testing (DST), selecting appropriate DST methods, projecting the quantity of DST and culture to ensure adequate supplies, creating biosafe laboratory facilities for DST, training laboratory personnel on methods, and validating DST methods at the NRL. Implementation involved training providers on DST indications, validating conventional and rapid first-line DST methods at district laboratories, and eliminating additional delays in specimen transport and result reporting. Monitoring included ongoing quality control and quality assurance procedures. Hurdles included logistics, coordinating with policy, competing interests, changing personnel, communications, and evaluation. Operational research guided laboratory scale-up and identified barriers to effective capacity building.
Pandemic Influenza Planning in the United States from a Health Disparities Perspective
PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 7 pages]
P. Blumenshine et al.View Abstract
We explored how different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups in the United States might fare in an influenza pandemic on the basis of social factors that shape exposure, vulnerability to influenza virus, and timeliness and adequacy of treatment. We discuss policies that might differentially affect social groups’ risk for illness or death. Our purpose is not to establish the precise magnitude of disparities likely to occur; rather, it is to call attention to avoidable disparities that can be expected in the absence of systematic attention to differential social risks in pandemic preparedness plans. Policy makers at the federal, state, and local levels should consider potential sources of socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities during a pandemic and formulate specific plans to minimize these disparities.
Declining Artesunate-Mefloquine Efficacy against Falciparum Malaria on the Cambodia–Thailand Border
PDF Version [PDF - 99 KB - 4 pages]
C. Wongsrichanalai and S. MeshnickView Abstract
Resistance to many antimalaria drugs developed on the Cambodia–Thailand border long before developing elsewhere. Because antimalaria resistance is now a global problem, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line therapies in most malaria-endemic countries. However, recent clinical and molecular studies suggest the emergence of ACT-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Cambodia–Thailand border area, where standard ACT is artesunate and mefloquine. These ACT failures might be caused by high-level mefloquine resistance because mefloquine was used for monotherapy long before the introduction of ACT. This observation raises 2 questions. First, how can existing P. falciparum–resistant strains be controlled? Second, how can the evolution of new ACT- resistant strains be avoided elsewhere, e.g., in Africa? Enforcement of rational drug use and improved diagnostic capacity are among the measures needed to avoid and contain ACT resistance.
Increasing Hospitalizations and General Practice Prescriptions for Community-onset Staphylococcal Disease, England
PDF Version [PDF - 268 KB - 7 pages]
A. Hayward et al.View Abstract
Rates of hospital-acquired staphylococcal infection increased throughout the 1990s; however, information is limited on trends in community-onset staphylococcal disease in the United Kingdom. We used Hospital Episode Statistics to describe trends in hospital admissions for community-onset staphylococcal disease and national general practice data to describe trends in community prescribing for staphylococcal disease. Hospital admission rates for staphyloccocal septicemia, staphylococcal pneumonia, staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome, and impetigo increased >5-fold. Admission rates increased 3-fold for abscesses and cellulitis and 1.5-fold for bone and joint infections. In primary care settings during 1991–2006, floxacillin prescriptions increased 1.8-fold and fusidic acid prescriptions 2.5-fold. The increases were not matched by increases in admission rates for control conditions. We identified a previously undescribed but major increase in pathogenic community-onset staphylococcal disease over the past 15 years. These trends are of concern given the international emergence of invasive community-onset staphylococcal infections.
Increasing Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia, England
PDF Version [PDF - 286 KB - 7 pages]
C. L. Trotter et al.View Abstract
Pneumonia is an important cause of illness and death in England. To describe trends in pneumonia hospitalizations, we extracted information on all episodes of pneumonia that occurred from April 1997 through March 2005 recorded in the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database by searching for International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes J12–J18 in any diagnostic field. The age-standardized incidence of hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia increased by 34% from 1.48 to 1.98 per 1,000 population between 1997–98 and 2004–05. The increase was more marked in older adults, in whom the mortality rate was also highest. The proportion of patients with recorded coexisting conditions (defined by using the Charlson Comorbidity Index score) increased over the study period. The rise in pneumonia hospital admissions was not fully explained by demographic change or increasing coexisting conditions. It may be attributable to other population factors, changes in HES coding, changes to health service organization, other biologic phenomenon, or a combination of these effects.
Increasing Incidence of Listeriosis in France and Other European Countries
PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 7 pages]
V. Goulet et al.View Abstract
From 1999 through 2005, the incidence of listeriosis in France declined from 4.5 to 3.5 cases/million persons. In 2006, it increased to 4.7 cases/million persons. Extensive epidemiologic investigations of clusters in France have ruled out the occurrence of large foodborne disease outbreaks. In addition, no increase has occurred in pregnancy-associated cases or among persons <60 years of age who have no underlying disease. Increases have occurred mainly among persons >60 years of age and appear to be most pronounced for persons >70 years of age. In 8 other European countries, the incidence of listeriosis has increased, or remained relatively high, since 2000. As in France, these increases cannot be attributed to foodborne outbreaks, and no increase has been observed in pregnancy-associated cases. European countries appear to be experiencing an increased incidence of listeriosis among persons >60 years of age. The cause of this selective increased incidence is unknown.
Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs
PDF Version [PDF - 1.02 MB - 6 pages]
D. Song et al.View Abstract
In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) isolate. The beagles shed virus through nasal excretion, seroconverted, and became ill with severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis and bronchioalveolitis with accompanying clinical signs (e.g., high fever). Consistent with histologic observation of lung lesions, large amounts of avian influenza virus binding receptor (SAα 2,3-gal) were identified in canine tracheal, bronchial, and bronchiolar epithelial cells, which suggests potential for direct transmission of avian influenza virus (H3N2) from poultry to dogs. Our data provide evidence that dogs may play a role in interspecies transmission and spread of influenza virus.
Efficacy of Aerial Spraying of Mosquito Adulticide in Reducing Incidence of West Nile Virus, California, 2005
PDF Version [PDF - 300 KB - 8 pages]
R. M. Carney et al.View Abstract
Epidemic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in Sacramento County, California, in 2005 prompted aerial application of pyrethrin, a mosquito adulticide, over a large urban area. Statistical analyses of geographic information system datasets indicated that adulticiding reduced the number of human WNV cases within 2 treated areas compared with the untreated area of the county. When we adjusted for maximum incubation period of the virus from infection to onset of symptoms, no new cases were reported in either of the treated areas after adulticiding; 18 new cases were reported in the untreated area of Sacramento County during this time. Results indicated that the odds of infection after spraying were ≈6× higher in the untreated area than in treated areas, and that the treatments successfully disrupted the WNV transmission cycle. Our results provide direct evidence that aerial mosquito adulticiding is effective in reducing human illness and potential death from WNV infection.
Cryptococcus neoformans Strains and Infection in Apparently Immunocompetent Patients, China
PDF Version [PDF - 375 KB - 8 pages]
J. Chen et al.View Abstract
To determine the population structure of the cryptococcosis agents in China, we analyzed the genotype of 120 Cryptococcus neoformans and 9 Cryptococcus gattii strains isolated from 1980 through 2006 from cryptococcosis patients residing in 16 provinces of mainland China. A total of 71% (91/129) of the clinical strains isolated from 1985 through 2006 were from patients without any apparent risk factors. Only 8.5% (11/129) were from AIDS patients; the remaining 20.5% (27/129) were from patients with underlying diseases other than HIV infection. One hundred twenty of the 129 isolates were C. neoformans serotype A, mating type MATα strains that exhibited an identical M13-based VNI subtype, which was distinguishable from the reference VNI molecular type. The 9 remaining isolates were serotype B, MATα strains of C. gattii and portrayed a typical VGI molecular type. Data analyzed from multilocus sequences showed no variation and that these Chinese C. neoformans isolates belong to a cluster that has phylogenetically diverged from the VNI reference strain. Our finding that most cryptococcosis patients in China had no apparent risk factor is in stark contrast with reports from other countries.
Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina
PDF Version [PDF - 189 KB - 9 pages]
M. Rivas et al.View Abstract
We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case–control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef.
Medscape CME Activity
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in Nursing Homes, Minnesota, 1995–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 6 pages]J. Rainbow et al.View Abstract
Nursing home residents are at high risk for invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease, and clusters of cases in nursing homes are common.To characterize the epidemiologic features of invasive GAS disease in nursing homes, we conducted active, statewide, population- and laboratory-based surveillance in Minnesota from April 1995 through 2006. Of 1,858 invasive GAS disease cases, 134 (7%) occurred in nursing home residents; 34 of these cases were identified as part of 13 clusters. Recognizing cases of GAS disease in nursing homes posed challenges. Measures to ensure identification of case-patients as residents of specific nursing homes need to be included in standard guidelines for the prevention and control of invasive GAS disease in this setting.
Public Response to Community Mitigation Measures for Pandemic Influenza
PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 9 pages]
R. J. Blendon et al.View Abstract
We report the results of a national survey conducted to help public health officials understand the public’s response to community mitigation interventions for a severe outbreak of pandemic influenza. Survey results suggest that if community mitigation measures are instituted, most respondents would comply with recommendations but would be challenged to do so if their income or job were severely compromised. The results also indicate that community mitigation measures could cause problems for persons with lower incomes and for racial and ethnic minorities. Twenty-four percent of respondents said that they would not have anyone available to take care of them if they became sick with pandemic influenza. Given these results, planning and public engagement will be needed to encourage the public to be prepared.
Spread of Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7, China
PDF Version [PDF - 431 KB - 5 pages]
C. Ye et al.View Abstract
Streptococcus suis sequence type (ST) 7 has been spreading throughout China. To determine events associated with its emergence, we tested 114 isolates. In all 106 ST7 strains responsible for human outbreaks and sporadic infections, the tetracycline-resistance gene, tetM, was detected on the conjugative transposon Tn916. Horizontal transmission of tetM is suspected.
Morbillivirus and Pilot Whale Deaths, Mediterranean Sea
PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
A. Fernández et al.View Abstract
An outbreak of a lethal morbillivirus infection of long-finned pilot whales occurred in the Mediterranean Sea from the end of October 2006 through April 2007. Sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus.
Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria
PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
A. Izri et al.View Abstract
To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria.
Lakes as Source of Cholera Outbreaks, Democratic Republic of Congo
PDF Version [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
D. Bompangue et al.View Abstract
We studied the epidemiology of cholera in Katanga and Eastern Kasai, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, by compiling a database including all cases recorded from 2000 through 2005. Results show that lakes were the sources of outbreaks and demonstrate the inadequacy of the strategy used to combat cholera.
Serologic Evidence for Novel Poxvirus in Endangered Red Colobus Monkeys, Western Uganda
PDF Version [PDF - 208 KB - 3 pages]
T. L. Goldberg et al.View Abstract
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and virus neutralization assays indicated that red colobus monkeys in Kibale National Park, western Uganda, had antibodies to a virus that was similar, but not identical, to known orthopoxviruses. The presence of a novel poxvirus in this endangered primate raises public health and conservation concerns.
Increase in West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease after Hurricane Katrina
PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 4 pages]
K. A. Caillouët et al.View Abstract
After Hurricane Katrina, the number of reported cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) sharply increased in the hurricane-affected regions of Louisiana and Mississippi. In 2006, a >2-fold increase in WNND incidence was observed in the hurricane-affected areas than in previous years.
Outbreak of Puumala Virus Infection, Sweden
PDF Version [PDF - 275 KB - 3 pages]
L. Pettersson et al.View Abstract
An unexpected and large outbreak of Puumala virus infection in Sweden resulted in 313 nephropathia epidemica patients/100,000 persons in Västerbotten County during 2007. An increase in the rodent population, milder weather, and less snow cover probably contributed to the outbreak.
Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines
PDF Version [PDF - 285 KB - 3 pages]
J. Luchavez et al.View Abstract
Five human cases of infection with the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi from Palawan, the Philippines, were confirmed by nested PCR. This study suggests that this zoonotic infection is found across a relatively wide area in Palawan and documents autochthonous cases in the country.
Naturally Acquired Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection, Singapore
PDF Version [PDF - 175 KB - 3 pages]
L. C. Ng et al.View Abstract
We report a case of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi in Singapore, a malaria-free country. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with validated species-specific primers. In industrialized countries, free-ranging primates are a potential source of P. knowlesi human infection. P. knowlesi infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile illness acquired in Singapore.
Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and Tick-borne Lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 267 KB - 4 pages]
M. Selmi et al.View Abstract
Of 263 patients in Tuscany, Italy, from whom ticks were removed during July 2005–May 2007, five showed signs of tick-borne encephalopathy. Of the ticks, 17 were Dermacentor marginatus; 6 (35.3%) of these were identified by sequence analysis as containing Rickettsia slovaca. Tick-borne lympadenopathy occurs in this area.
Fatal Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis Infection, Israel
PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 4 pages]
M. Weinberger et al.View Abstract
Underdiagnosis of fatal spotted fever may be attributed to nonspecific clinical features and insensitive acute-phase serologic studies. We describe the importance of molecular and immunohistochemical methods in establishing the postmortem diagnosis of locally acquired Israeli spotted fever due to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis in a traveler returning to Israel from India.
Social Support and Response to AIDS and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
PDF Version [PDF - 109 KB - 3 pages]
A. Nandi et al.View Abstract
Negative public reactions to emerging infectious diseases can adversely affect population health. We assessed whether social support was associated with knowledge of, worry about, and attitudes towards AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Our findings suggest that social support may be central to our understanding of public responses to emerging infectious diseases.
Acute Encephalitis Caused by Intrafamilial Transmission of Enterovirus 71 in Adult
PDF Version [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
T. Hamaguchi et al.View Abstract
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and sometimes causes severe neurologic complications, mainly in children. We report a case of adult-onset encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of a subgenogroup C4 strain of EV71. This case elucidates the risk for EV71 encephalitis even in adults.
Seasonal Cholera from Multiple Small Outbreaks, Rural Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
O. Stine et al.View Abstract
Clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae organisms collected from February 2004 through April 2005 were systematically isolated from 2 rural Bangladeshi locales. Their genetic relatedness was evaluated at 5 loci that contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). The observed minimal overlap in VNTR patterns between the 2 communities was consistent with sequential, small outbreaks from local sources.
New Saffold Cardioviruses in 3 Children, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed and G. BoivinView Abstract
In Canada, cardiovirus isolates related to Saffold virus were detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 3 children with respiratory symptoms. Polyprotein sequence of the Can112051-06 isolate had 91.2% aa identity with Saffold virus; however, EF and CD loops of the viral surface varied substantially.
Bacteremia Caused by Group G Streptococci, Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 4 pages]
C. Liao et al.View Abstract
A retrospective observational study in Taiwan, 1998–2004, identified 92 patients with group G streptococcal bacteremia; 86 had Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. The most common diagnosis was cellulitis (48 cases), followed by primary bacteremia (34 cases). Infection recurred in 9 patients. Mortality rate was low (3.3%); resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin was high.
Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica
PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 3 pages]
W. Gatei et al.View Abstract
A cryptosporidiosis survey showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, C. canis, and C. felis in 25, 7, 1, and 1 HIV-positive persons from Jamaica, respectively; 1 person had both C. hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica.
Human Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children, Madagascar, 2004–2005
PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
D. C. Papaventsis et al.View Abstract
We report data regarding the molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus (HAstV) infections among children in Madagascar. In a 13-month study, 5 HAstV isolates were detected in fecal samples from 237 children (2.1%) by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of usual and unusual HAstVs.
The Mystery of Increased Hospitalizations of Elderly Patients
PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
M. I. Meltzer
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis,Taiwan
PDF Version [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
M. Yu et al.
Hantavirus Outbreak, Germany, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 3 pages]
J. Hofmann et al.
Chikungunya Virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 3 pages]
P. Bonilauri et al.
Persistent Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunocompromised Child
PDF Version [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Abed and G. Boivin
Leptospirosis in Taiwan, 2001–2006
PDF Version [PDF - 124 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Chou et al.
Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonenis Infection, Suriname
PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
W. van der Meide et al.
Household Transmission of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae
PDF Version [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
T. Gottesman et al.
Alternatives to Ciprofloxacin Use for Enteric Fever, United Kingdom
PDF Version [PDF - 96 KB - 2 pages]
E. J. Threlfall et al.
Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
N. Busquets et al.
Rotavirus PG2 in a Vaccinated Population, Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 1.03 MB - 1 page]
M. M. Patel et al.
Books and Media
Twelve Diseases That Changed Our World
PDF Version [PDF - 82 KB - 1 page]
J. W. Ward
Superantigens: Molecular Basis for Their Role in Human Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 92 KB - 1 page]
D. S. Schmid
Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology
PDF Version [PDF - 77 KB - 1 page]
B. W. Mahy
AIDS Therapy, 3rd Edition
PDF Version [PDF - 80 KB - 2 pages]
About the Cover
- Page created: October 19, 2012
- Page last updated: October 19, 2012
- Page last reviewed: October 19, 2012
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)