Volume 14, Number 5—May 2008
Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina1
|Risk factors||% Case-patients† (N = 150)||% Controls† (N = 299)||Unadjusted univariate analysis
||Adjusted univariate analysis*
|mOR||95% C‡||p value||mOR||95% CI||p value|
|General dietary habits|
|Eating at a social gathering||18||8||2.79||1.4–5.3||0.002||3.77||1.8–8.1||0.0007||B, M|
|Eating any meal prepared at home||93||88||2.26||1.0–5.0||0.047||3.22||1.3–7.7||0.009||B|
| Drinking from baby bottle left
at room temperature for >2 h
|Beef-related dietary habits|
|Eating beef outside home||22||15||1.70||1.0–2.9||0.06||2.18||1.2–4.1||0.014||B|
|Eating breaded beef (milanesa)||3||0.3||10.00||1.2–85.6||0.036||13.45||1.4–125.0||0.022||B|
|Eating undercooked beef any place||29||14||2.69||1.6–4.5||0.0002||2.65||1.5–4.8||0.001||B|
|Eating undercooked piece of beef||19||9||2.46||1.4–4.4||0.003||2.38||1.2–4.6||0.010||B|
|Eating undercooked ground beef||11||5||2.41||1.1–5.1||0.021||2.70||1.1–6.5||0.026||B|
|Eating undercooked beef outside home||5||0.3||14.00||1.7–113.8||0.014||25.04||2.6–242.4||0.005||B|
|Eating undercooked beef at home||26||14||2.33||1.4–3.9||0.001||2.23||1.2–4.0||0.008||B|
|Teething on undercooked beef||11||2||4.83||1.9–12.4||0.001||4.00||1.4–11.4||0.010||B|
|Consuming jugo de carne¶||11||5||2.19||1.2–4.0||0.009||3.23||1.3–7.8||0.009||B, M|
|Eating undercooked piece of beef||18||9||2.21||1.2–4.0||0.009||2.05||1.1–4.0||0.033||B|
|Eating undercooked steak||13||6||2.34||1.2–4.6||0.015||2.03||0.0–4.3||0.060||B|
| Eating salami at home
|Exposure to animals or their environment|
|Living in or visiting a place with farm animals||13||5||3.49||1.5–7.9||0.003||4.86||1.9–12.8||0.001||B, M|
|Contact with farm animals||11||5||2.25||1.0–4.8||0.036||4.45||1.7–11.6||0.002||B, M|
|Contact with cattle manure||3||1||4.33||0.8–22.8||0.084||9.03||1.0–86.1||0.050||M|
|Contact with horses||10||4||2.76||1.2–6.4||0.02||5.02||1.7–14.5||0.003||M|
|Contact with pigs||5||2||2.13||0.7–6.2||0.20||3.80||1.0–13.4||0.041||M|
|Contact with poultry||6||4||1.68||0.7–4.2||0.26||2.90||1.0–8.2||0.050||M|
| Contact with cattle
|Contact with a child <5 y||80||67||2.08||1.3–3.4||0.003||2.05||1.2–3.5||0.009||B, M|
|Attending daycare or kindergarten||17||9||2.87||1.4–5.9||0.004||2.34||1.1–5.1||0.034||B, M|
| Contact with a child <5 y with diarrhea
|Nonparental household income||56||40||1.89||1.3–2.8||0.002||1.98||1.2–3.2||0.005||B|
*Adjusted by the fixed adjustment factors shown in Table 2. mOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†The denominator (number of respondents) for case-patients varied from 146 to 150, except for contact with a child <5 y with diarrhea in which the number was 119. The denominator for controls varied from 292 to 299, except for contact with a child <5 y with diarrhea in which the number was 263.
‡Denotes adjusted univariate analysis significant in Buenos Aires (B), Mendoza (M), or neither site (–).
§Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio.
¶Liquid squeezed from a tender, usually lightly cooked piece of beef, and spoon-fed.
1Part of the information in this article was presented at the 5th International Symposium and Workshop on Shiga Toxin (verocytotoxin)–Producing Escherichia coli Infections, June 2003, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, Abstract 0-5, p.19.