Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009
CME ACTIVITY - Research
Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008
|Variable||Travelers with SFG rickettsiosis, N = 197†||Travelers without SFG rickettsiosis, N = 11,690†||Univariate association
|OR (95% CI)||p value||OR (95% CI)||p value|
|Mean age, y||43.9, n = 196||36.5, n = 11,608||–||<0.0001||1.02 (1.01–1.03)§||<0.0001|
|Male gender, no. (%)||115 (58.4), n = 197||6,105 (52.6), n = 11,599||1.26 (0.95–1.68)||0.11||1.40 (1.02–1.92)||0.035|
|Travel to southern Africa,¶ no. (%)||139 (70.6), n = 197||759 (6.5), n = 11,686||34.5 (25.18–47.28)||<0.0001||23.61 (16.86–33.07)||<0.0001|
|Travel in late summer,# no. (%)||89 (47.1), n = 189||4,220 (40.6), n = 10,402||1.30 (0.98–1.74)||0.07||1.57 (1.15–2.15)||0.005|
|Travel duration >7 d, no. (%)||173 (91.5), n = 189||9,661 (92.9), n = 10,402||0.83 (0.49–1.39)||0.48||0.67 (0.38–1.18)||0.164|
|No pretravel clinic visit, no. (%)||40 (21.7), n = 184||2,823 (26.5), n = 10,665||0.77 (0.54–1.10)||0.15||0.98 (0.66–1.44)||0.903|
|Independent travel,** no. (%)||34 (44.2), n = 77||4,100 (58.6), n = 6,993||0.56 (0.35–0.87)||0.01||0.83 (0.56–1.25)||0.373|
|Tourism as reason for travel, no. (%)||163 (82.7), n = 197||5,027 (43.0), n = 11,686||6.35 (4.38–9.21)||<0.0001||2.96 (1.97–4.45)||<0.0001|
*SFG, spotted fever group; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†n = number of travelers for whom this information was available.
‡This model included all variables considered at univariate level because of their clinical relevance. The Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test for this model is p = 0.575.
§Odds ratio is for 1-y increase in age.
¶United Nations subregion comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland.
**Independent travel was not formally collected by GeoSentinel until after May 2007.
In addition to the authors, the following members of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network contributed data: Kevin C. Kain, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Phyllis E. Kozarsky and Carlos Franco-Paredes, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Louis Loutan and François Chappuis, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Joseph Torresi and Graham Brown, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; DeVon C. Hale and Stefanie S. Gelman, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA; Alice Pérignon, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; Mary E. Wilson, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Fabrice Simon and Jean Delmont, Hôpital Nord, Marseille, France; William M. Stauffer and Patricia F. Walker, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Poh Lian Lim and Annelies Wilder-Smith, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; Jose Antonio Perez Molina, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; Bradley A. Connor, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA; Carmelo Licitra and Antonio Crespo, Orlando Regional Health Center, Orlando, Florida, USA; David O. Freedman, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Giampiero Carosi and Francesco Castelli, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; Marc Shaw, Worldwise Travelers Health and Vaccination Centre, Auckland, New Zealand; Prativa Pandey, CIWEC Clinic Travel Medicine Center, Kathmandu, Nepal; R. Bradley Sack and Robin McKenzie, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (Dec 1997–Aug 2007); Elizabeth D. Barnett, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Christina M. Coyle and Murray Wittner, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; Stefan Hagmann and Andy Miller, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx; Michael W. Lynch, Fresno International Travel Medical Center, Fresno, California, USA; Vanessa Field, InterHealth, London, UK; Michael D. Libman and J. Dick Maclean, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Alejandra Gurtman, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA (Oct 2002–Aug 2005); Shuzo Kanagawa and Yasuyuki Kato, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; and Patricia Schlagenhauf, Rainer Weber, and Robert Steffen, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
- Page created: December 09, 2010
- Page last updated: December 09, 2010
- Page last reviewed: December 09, 2010
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)