Volume 15, Number 4—April 2009
THEME ISSUE The Amazon Region
Human Febrile Illness Caused by Encephalomyocarditis Virus Infection, Peru
M. Steven Oberste, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Patrick Blair, W. Allan Nix, Thomas G. Ksiazek, James A. Comer, Pierre Rollin, Cynthia S. Goldsmith, James Olson, and Tadeusz J. Kochel
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.S. Oberste, W.A. Nix, T.G. Ksiazek, J.A. Comer, P. Rollin, C.S. Goldsmith); Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru (E. Gotuzzo); Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima (P. Blair, J. Olson, T.J. Kochel)
Figure 2. Phylogenetic relationships among viruses detected in Peru and other encephalomyocarditis viruses (EMCVs), and their relationship to the Theiler and Theiler-like cardioviruses. A) Viral protein 1 (VP1); 737 nucleotides (90% of the VP1 gene). The missing portion of the VP1 gene is at the 3’ end. B) 5′ nontranslated region; 145 nucleotides consisting of a highly conserved portion of the internal ribosome entry site, sequence coordinates 558 to 699 relative to EMCV GenBank accession no. AX786477. C) 3D; 210 nucleotides (15% of the 3D gene). The use of this portion of the 3D gene for phylogenetic analysis has been described elsewhere (25). Phylogenies were reconstructed with the neighbor-joining method implemented in ClustalX version 1.83 (27). Genetic distances were estimated by the Kimura 2-parameter method. To assess the confidence of branching patterns, 1,000 bootstrap replicates were performed. Cardioviruses are identified by GenBank accession number and strain name; when available, complete virus information is given, using the following convention: GenBank accession number, country of origin/strain name/year of isolation-host species. Country abbreviations: BEL, Belgium; BRA, Brazil; CAN, Canada; CYP, Cyprus; FRA, France; GER, Germany; GRE, Greece; ITA, Italy; JPN, Japan; RUS, Russia; SIN, Singapore; USA, United States. Scale bars indicate number of nucleotide substitutions per site.
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