Figure 2. Phylogenetic relationships among viruses detected in Peru and other encephalomyocarditis viruses (EMCVs), and their relationship to the Theiler and Theiler-like cardioviruses. A) Viral protein 1 (VP1); 737 nucleotides (90% of the VP1 gene). The missing portion of the VP1 gene is at the 3’ end. B) 5′ nontranslated region; 145 nucleotides consisting of a highly conserved portion of the internal ribosome entry site, sequence coordinates 558 to 699 relative to EMCV GenBank accession no. AX786477. C) 3D; 210 nucleotides (15% of the 3D gene). The use of this portion of the 3D gene for phylogenetic analysis has been described elsewhere (25). Phylogenies were reconstructed with the neighbor-joining method implemented in ClustalX version 1.83 (27). Genetic distances were estimated by the Kimura 2-parameter method. To assess the confidence of branching patterns, 1,000 bootstrap replicates were performed. Cardioviruses are identified by GenBank accession number and strain name; when available, complete virus information is given, using the following convention: GenBank accession number, country of origin/strain name/year of isolation-host species. Country abbreviations: BEL, Belgium; BRA, Brazil; CAN, Canada; CYP, Cyprus; FRA, France; GER, Germany; GRE, Greece; ITA, Italy; JPN, Japan; RUS, Russia; SIN, Singapore; USA, United States. Scale bars indicate number of nucleotide substitutions per site.