Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti
Berlin L. Londono, Thomas P. Eisele, Joseph Keating, Adam Bennett, Chandon Chattopadhyay, Gaetan Heyliger, Brian Mack, Ian Rawson, Jean-Francois Vely, Olbeg Désinor, and Donald J. Krogstad
Author affiliations: Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (B.L. Londono, T.P. Eisele, J. Keating, A. Bennett, B. Mack, D.J. Krogstad); University of Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia (B.L. Londono); Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Deschapelles, Haiti (C. Chattopadhyay, G. Heyliger, I. Rawson); Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland (C. Chattopadhyay); Ministry of Health, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (J.-F. Vely); US Agency for International Development, Port-au-Prince (O. Désinor)
Figure. Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplicons for the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter gene digested with ApoI. Lane 1, DNA molecular mass standards (Stds) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA); lanes 2 and 3, amplicons susceptible to cleavage by ApoI, showing 2 fragments of 100 and 34 bp, consistent with infection by only CQ-susceptible haplotype parasites; lanes 4 and 5, amplicons partially resistant to cleavage by ApoI, showing 3 fragments of 134, 100, and 34 bp, consistent with mixed infections by CQ-resistant and CQ-susceptible haplotype parasites; lane 6, positive control (Pos ctrl), amplicon from CQ-susceptible Haiti I/CDC strain (26), showing 2 fragments of 100 and 34 bp; lane 7, negative control (Neg ctrl), amplicon from CQ-resistant Indochina (Indo) I/CDC strain (33), showing 1 fragment of 134 bp.
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