Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil1
Albert Schriefer , Luiz H. Guimarães, Paulo R.L. Machado, Marcus Lessa, Hélio A. Lessa, Ednaldo Lago, Guilherme Ritt, Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Ana L.F. Schriefer, Lee W. Riley, and Edgar M. Carvalho
Author affiliations: Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil (A. Schriefer, L.H. Guimarães, P.R.L. Machado, M. Lessa, H.A. Lessa, E. Lago, G. Ritt, A.L.F. Schriefer, E.M. Carvalho); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Brazil (A. Góes-Neto); University of California School of Public Health, Berkeley, California, USA (L.W. Riley)
Figure 2. Satellite view of distribution of patients with disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) limited to the skin, patients with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and patients with DL showing mucosal involvement (MDL) in Corte de Pedra, Brazil, 1999–2003. A) Black circles indicate patients with DL, and blue circles indicate patients with MDL. B) Red circles indicate patients with ML, and blue circles indicate patients with MDL. Vertical line divides the region into inner (left) and coastal (right) areas of similar size. Total number of patients shown is smaller than the number of corresponding patients because of overlap of geographic coordinates for some patients. For details, see Materials and Methods. p = 0.8 in panel A and p = 0.00003 in panel B for data analyzed by using the Cuzick and Edwards test in Clusterseer version 2.2.4 (Terraseer Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA). The yellow mark indicates the health post.
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