Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009
Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 4.78 MB - 151 pages]
Medscape CME Activity
Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7 PDF Version [PDF - 501 KB - 7 pages]J. A. Belser et al.View SummaryView Abstract
These viruses have resulted in >100 cases of human infection since 2002, and their pandemic potential should not be underestimated.
Influenza A subtype H7 viruses have resulted in >100 cases of human infection since 2002 in the Netherlands, Italy, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Clinical illness from subtype H7 infection ranges from conjunctivitis to mild upper respiratory illness to pneumonia. Although subtype H7 infections have resulted in a smaller proportion of hospitalizations and deaths in humans than those caused by subtype H5N1, some subtype H7 strains appear more adapted for human infection on the basis of their virus-binding properties and illness rates among exposed persons. Moreover, increased isolation of subtype H7 influenza viruses from poultry and the ability of this subtype to cause severe human disease underscore the need for continued surveillance and characterization of these viruses. We review the history of human infection caused by subtype H7. In addition, we discuss recently identified molecular correlates of subtype H7 virus pathogenesis and assess current measures to prevent future subtype H7 virus infection.
Diphyllobothriasis Associated with Eating Raw Pacific Salmon
PDF Version [PDF - 544 KB - 5 pages]
N. Arizono et al.View Abstract
The incidence of human infection with the broad tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense has been increasing in urban areas of Japan and in European countries. D. nihonkaiense is morphologically similar to but genetically distinct from D. latum and exploits anadromous wild Pacific salmon as its second intermediate host. Clinical signs in humans include diarrhea and discharge of the strobila, which can be as long as 12 m. The natural life history and the geographic range of the tapeworm remain to be elucidated, but recent studies have indicated that the brown bear in the northern territories of the Pacific coast region is its natural final host. A recent surge of clinical cases highlights a change in the epidemiologic trend of this tapeworm disease from one of rural populations to a disease of urban populations worldwide who eat seafood as part of a healthy diet.
Geographic Clustering of Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 614 KB - 6 pages]
A. Schriefer et al.View Abstract
To determine whether disease outcomes and clades of Leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999–2003 in Corte de Pedra in northeastern Brazil. Highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) (p<0.0001). Concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of L. braziliensis genotypes shown to be associated with these disease forms. We also detected spread of DL over this region and an inverse correlation between frequency of recent DL diagnoses and distance to a previous DL case. These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil.
Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 552 KB - 8 pages]
M. Venter et al.View Abstract
Serologic evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in horses in southern Africa. However, because few neurologic cases have been reported, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be nonpathogenic in horses. Recent evidence suggests that highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains exist in humans and mice. To determine whether neurologic cases are being missed in South Africa, we tested 80 serum or brain specimens from horses with unexplained fever (n = 48) and/or neurologic signs (n = 32) for WNV. From March 2007 through June 2008, using reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) M ELISA, we found WNV RNA or IgM in 7/32 horses with acute neurologic disease; 5 horses died or were euthanized. In 5/7 horses, no other pathogen was detected. DNA sequencing for all 5 RT-PCR–positive cases showed the virus belonged to lineage 2. WNV lineage 2 may cause neurologic disease in horses in South Africa.
Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China
PDF Version [PDF - 607 KB - 7 pages]
Y. Zhang et al.View Abstract
Surveys were carried out in 2003–2006 to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (Inner Mongolia). Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in this region in 1955 and has been an important public health problem here since then. During 1955–2006, 8,309 persons with HFRS were reported in Inner Mongolia (average incidence rate 0.89/100,000), and 261 (3.14%) died. Before the 1990s, all HFRS cases occurred in northeastern Inner Mongolia. Subsequently, HFRS cases were registered in central (1995) and western (1999) Inner Mongolia. In this study, hantaviral antigens were identified in striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) from northeastern Inner Mongolia and in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from middle and western Inner Mongolia. Phylogenetic analysis of hantaviral genome sequences suggests that HFRS has been caused mainly by Hantaan virus in northeastern Inner Mongolia and by Seoul virus in central and western Inner Mongolia.
Case-based Surveillance of Influenza Hospitalizations during 2004–2008, Colorado, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 479 KB - 7 pages]
R. Proff et al.View Abstract
Colorado became the first state to make laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations a case-based reportable condition in 2004. We summarized surveillance for influenza hospitalizations in Colorado during the first 4 recorded influenza seasons (2004–2008). We highlight the similarities and differences among influenza seasons; no 2 seasons were entirely the same. The 2005–06 influenza season had 2 distinct waves of activity (types A and B), the 2006–07 season was substantially later and milder, and 2007–08 had substantially greater influenza B activity. The case-based surveillance for influenza hospitalizations provides information regarding the time course of seasonal influenza activity, reported case numbers and population-based rates by age group and influenza virus type, and a measure of relative severity. Influenza hospitalization surveillance provides more information about seasonal influenza activity than any other surveillance measure (e.g., surveillance for influenza-like illness) currently in widespread use among states. More states should consider implementing case-based surveillance for influenza hospitalizations.
Tuberculosis Disparity between US-born Blacks and Whites, Houston, Texas, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 502 KB - 6 pages]
J. A. Serpa et al.View Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the United States are disproportionately high for certain ethnic minorities. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we compared data for 1,318 US-born blacks with 565 US-born non-Hispanic whites who participated in the Houston TB Initiative (1995–2004). All available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates underwent susceptibility and genotype testing (insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, spoligotyping, and genetic grouping). TB in blacks was associated with younger age, inner city residence, HIV seropositivity, and drug resistance. TB cases clustered in 82% and 77% of blacks and whites, respectively (p = 0.46). Three clusters had >100 patients each, including 1 cluster with a predominance of blacks. Size of TB clusters was unexpectedly large, underscoring the ongoing transmission of TB in Houston, particularly among blacks.
Changes in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia after 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccination, Spain
PDF Version [PDF - 469 KB - 7 pages]
A. G. de la Campa et al.View Abstract
Among 4,215 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates obtained in Spain during 2006, 98 (2.3%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (3.6% from adults and 0.14% from children). In comparison with findings from a 2002 study, global resistance remained stable. Low-level resistance (30 isolates with MIC 4–8 μg/mL) was caused by a reserpine-sensitive efflux phenotype (n = 4) or single topoisomerase IV (parC [n = 24] or parE [n = 1]) changes. One isolate did not show reserpine-sensitive efflux or mutations. High-level resistance (68 isolates with MIC ≥16 μg/mL) was caused by changes in gyrase (gyrA) and parC or parE. New changes in parC (S80P) and gyrA (S81V, E85G) were shown to be involved in resistance by genetic transformation. Although 49 genotypes were observed, clones Spain9V-ST156 and Sweden15A-ST63 accounted for 34.7% of drug-resistant isolates. In comparison with findings from the 2002 study, clones Spain14-ST17, Spain23F-ST81, and ST8819F decreased and 4 new genotypes (ST9710A, ST57016, ST43322, and ST71733) appeared in 2006.
Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 391 KB - 4 pages]
D. L. Bonilla et al.View Abstract
Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of body lice–infested persons and 25% of head lice–infested persons had lice pools infected with B. quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana–infected lice.
Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil
PDF Version [PDF - 602 KB - 6 pages]
A. Q. Sousa and R. PearsonView Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877–1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, ≈55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems.
Tropheryma whipplei in Fecal Samples from Children, Senegal
PDF Version [PDF - 486 KB - 3 pages]
F. Fenollar et al.View Abstract
We tested fecal samples from 150 healthy children 2–10 years of age who lived in rural Senegal and found the prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei was 44%. Unique genotypes were associated with this bacterium. Our findings suggest that T. whipplei is emerging as a highly prevalent pathogen in sub-Saharan Africa.
Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 497 KB - 3 pages]
T. Goldstein et al.View Abstract
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals.
Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum Strains, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 548 KB - 3 pages]
E. Morissette et al.View Abstract
We analyzed the structure of the expression site encoding the immunoprotective protein MSP2/P44 from multiple Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains in the United States. The sequence of p44ESup1 had diverged in Ap-variant 1 strains infecting ruminants. In contrast, no differences were detected between A. phagocytophilum strains infecting humans and domestic dogs.
Increasing Incidence of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis on Crete, Greece
PDF Version [PDF - 381 KB - 3 pages]
M. Antoniou et al.View Abstract
To determine whether the incidence of canine leishmaniasis has increased on Crete, Greece, we fitted infection models to serodiagnostic records of 8,848 dog samples for 1990–2006. Models predicted that seroprevalence has increased 2.4% (95% confidence interval 1.61%–3.51%) per year and that incidence has increased 2.2- to 3.8-fold over this 17-year period.
Avian Influenza in Wild Birds, Central Coast of Peru
PDF Version [PDF - 577 KB - 4 pages]
B. M. Ghersi et al.View Abstract
To determine genotypes of avian influenza virus circulating among wild birds in South America, we collected and tested environmental fecal samples from birds along the coast of Peru, June 2006–December 2007. The 9 isolates recovered represented 4 low-pathogenicity avian influenza strains: subtypes H3N8, H4N5, H10N9, and H13N2.
Japanese Encephalitis Viruses from Bats in Yunnan, China
J. Wang et al.View Abstract
Genome sequencing and virulence studies of 2 Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEVs) from bats in Yunnan, China, showed a close relationship with JEVs isolated from mosquitoes and humans in the same region over 2 decades. These results indicate that bats may play a role in human Japanese encephalitis outbreaks in this region.
Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Michigan, USA, 2007
PDF Version [PDF - 468 KB - 3 pages]
J. Finks et al.View Abstract
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infections, which are always methicillin-resistant, are a rare but serious public health concern. We examined 2 cases in Michigan in 2007. Both patients had underlying illnesses. Isolates were vanA-positive. VRSA was neither transmitted to or from another known VRSA patient nor transmitted from patients to identified contacts.
Rabies in Ferret Badgers, Southeastern China
PDF Version [PDF - 506 KB - 3 pages]
S. Zhang et al.View Abstract
Ferret badger–associated human rabies cases emerged in China in 1994. We used a retrospective epidemiologic survey, virus isolation, laboratory diagnosis, and nucleotide sequencing to document its reemergence in 2002–2008. Whether the cause is spillover from infected dogs or recent host shift and new reservoir establishment requires further investigation.
Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999
PDF Version [PDF - 447 KB - 3 pages]
J. N. Mills et al.View Abstract
The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Clone in Long-Term Care Facility
PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 3 pages]
P. Tattevin et al.View Abstract
We performed a longitudinal analysis of 661 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients in a long-term care facility. USA300 clone increased from 11.3% of all MRSA isolates in 2002 to 64.0% in 2006 (p<0.0001) and was mostly recovered from skin or skin structures (64.3% vs. 27.0% for non-USA300 MRSA; p<0.0001).
Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe
PDF Version [PDF - 497 KB - 4 pages]
I. D. Xynos et al.View Abstract
We report 2 cases of leishmaniasis in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in Greece. To assess trends in leishmaniasis reporting in this patient population, we searched the literature for similar reports from Europe. Reports increased during 2004–2008, especially for patients treated with anti–tumor necrosis factor agents.
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Strains in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma
PDF Version [PDF - 368 KB - 3 pages]
A. Touzé et al.View Abstract
We investigated whether Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients in France carry Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and then identified strain variations. All frozen MCC specimens and 45% of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens, but none of the non-MCC neuroendocrine carcinomas specimens, had MCPyV. Strains from France and the United States were similar.
Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever by PCR of Lesion Swabs
PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 3 pages]
J. Wang et al.View Abstract
We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.
Oseltamivir- and Amantadine-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1)
PDF Version [PDF - 486 KB - 3 pages]
P. K. Cheng et al.View Abstract
Surveillance of amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses was begun in Hong Kong in 2006. In 2008, while both A/Brisbane/59/2007-like and A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1) were cocirculating, we detected amantadine and oseltamivir resistance among A/Hong Kong/2652/2006-like viruses (H1N1), caused by genetic reassortment or spontaneous mutation.
Clinical Recovery and Circulating Botulinum Toxin Type F in Adult Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 436 KB - 3 pages]
J. Sobel et al.View Abstract
A 56-year-old woman in Helena, Montana, USA, who showed clinical signs of paralysis, received antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, and E within 24 hours; nevertheless, symptoms progressed to complete quadriplegia. On day 8, she began moving spontaneously, even though blood tests later showed botulinum toxin type F remained.
Murine Typhus in Child, Yucatan, Mexico
PDF Version [PDF - 470 KB - 3 pages]
J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.View Abstract
A case of murine typhus in Yucatan was diagnosed in a child with nonspecific signs and symptoms. The finding of Rickettsia typhi increases the number of Rickettsia species identified in Yucatan and shows that studies are needed to determine the prevalence and incidence of rickettsioses in Mexico.
Murine Typhus and Leptospirosis as Causes of Acute Undifferentiated Fever, Indonesia
PDF Version [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
M. H. Gasem et al.View Abstract
To investigate rickettsioses and leptospirosis among urban residents of Semarang, Indonesia, we tested the blood of 137 patients with fever. Evidence of Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in 9 patients. Another 9 patients showed inconclusive serologic results. Thirteen patients received a diagnosis of leptospirosis. No dual infections were detected.
Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Doi et al.
Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man
PDF Version [PDF - 393 KB - 2 pages]
M. Kváč et al.
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Southwestern Bulgaria
PDF Version [PDF - 437 KB - 3 pages]
I. Christova et al.
Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica Bacteremia in Homeless Woman
PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 3 pages]
S. Rebaudet et al.
Serologic Screening for Neospora caninum, France
PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 2 pages]
F. Robert-Gangneux and F. Klein
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase in Long-term Care Facility, Illinois, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 2 pages]
M. McGuinn et al.
Bedbugs and Healthcare-associated Dermatitis, France
PDF Version [PDF - 381 KB - 2 pages]
P. Delaunay et al.
New Saffold Cardiovirus in Children, China
PDF Version [PDF - 387 KB - 2 pages]
Z. Xu et al.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Clone, Italy
PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 2 pages]
C. Vignaroli et al.
Meningitis and Radiculomyelitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis
PDF Version [PDF - 450 KB - 3 pages]
T. Maretić et al.
Religious Opposition to Polio Vaccination
PDF Version [PDF - 329 KB - 1 page]
H. J. Warraich
Recurrent Human Rhinovirus Infections in Infants with Refractory Wheezing
PDF Version [PDF - 378 KB - 3 pages]
P. Linsuwanon et al.
Angiostrongyliasis in the Americas
PDF Version [PDF - 331 KB - 1 page]
A. J. Dorta-Contreras et al.
Increase in Group G Streptococcal Infections in a Community Hospital, New York, USA
S. S. Wong et al.
Books and Media
Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America
PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 1 page]
T. A. Peterman
Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases: Novartis Foundation Symposium 290
PDF Version [PDF - 370 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Morens
About the Cover
“Sometimes the naked taste of potato reminds me of being poor”
PDF Version [PDF - 330 KB - 1 page]
Peer Reviewed Report Available Online OnlyStockpiling Supplies for the Next Influenza Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 6 pages]L. J. Radonovich et al.View Abstract
Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems.
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- Page last updated: September 24, 2012
- Page last reviewed: September 24, 2012
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