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Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010

Research

Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses from Pigs, Indonesia

Chairul A. Nidom, Ryo Takano, Shinya Yamada, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Syafril Daulay, Didi Aswadi, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki, Kyoko Shinya, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Yukiko Muramoto, and Yoshihiro KawaokaComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia (C.A. Nidom); University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (R. Takano, S. Yamada, Y. Sakai-Tagawa, K. Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Y. Muramoto, Y. Kawaoka); Ministry of Agriculture, Jakarta, Indonesia (S. Daulay); Agriculture and Livestock Agency, Tangerang, Indonesia (D. Aswadi); University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka City, Japan (T. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki); Chubu University, Kasugai City, Japan (Y. Suzuki); Kobe University, Kobe, Japan (K. Shinya, Y. Kawaoka); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA (Y. Kawaoka)

Main Article

Table 1

Sites and prevalence of influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from pigs, Indonesia*

Surveillance period and location No. samples/no. pigs† Viruses isolated, no. (rate) Management type Distance from poultry
2005 Jan–2005 Feb
Banten, Tangerang
Farm A 41/500 12 (29) Commercial On site
Farm B 22/500 6 (27) Commercial On site
Farm C 13/50 0 Private On site
Farm D 18/250 11 (61) Commercial On site
Farm E 13/50 0 Private On site
Farm F 29/250 4 (14) Commercial On site
Farm G 23/100 2 (9) Private On site
East Java, Surabaya, SH 8/100 0 Private 2 km
Total
167/1,800
35 (21)
NA
NA
2006 Oct–2007 Feb
Banten, Tangerang
Farm H 34/150 4 (12) Commercial On site
Farm I 15/50 1 (7) Private On site
East Java
Surabaya, SH 95/600–700 8 (8) Government 1 km
Kediri, farm 30/150 1 (3) Private 1 km
North Sumatra, Medan, farm 38/400 2 (5) Commercial 0.5 km
South Kalimantan, Banjarmasin, SH 23/50 1 (4) Private On site
Total
235/1,400–1,500
17 (7)
NA
NA
2008 Nov–2009 Apr
East Java
Tulungagung
Farm A 25/900 0 Commercial 1 km
Farm B 29/700 0 Commercial 2 km
Surabaya, SH 40/600–700 0 Government 1 km
Jember, farm 18/400 0 Private 2 km
Malang, farm 39/500 0‡ Private 1 km
Central Java, Solo, farm 15/100 0 Private 5 km
Bali
Denpasar, SH 99/400 0 Government 2 km
Tabanan, farm 9/300 0 Commercial 0.2 km
Riau Islands, Bulan, farm 26/20,000 0 Commercial No poultry farms on island
Total 300/23,900–24,000 0 NA NA
Total 702/27,100–27,300 52 (7.4) NA NA

*SH, slaughterhouse; NA, not applicable.
†Numbers of pigs on farms are estimates.
‡Three samples were positive for A/swine/East Java/UT6040/2007 (H5N1); neutralizing titers were 4 for 1 sample and 16 for 2 samples.

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