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Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010

Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010   PDF Version [PDF - 4.23 MB - 151 pages]

Research

  • Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses from Pigs, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 722 KB - 9 pages]
    C. A. Nidom et al.
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    Pigs may serve as intermediate hosts in which this avian virus can adapt to mammals.

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    Pigs have long been considered potential intermediate hosts in which avian influenza viruses can adapt to humans. To determine whether this potential exists for pigs in Indonesia, we conducted surveillance during 2005–2009. We found that 52 pigs in 4 provinces were infected during 2005–2007 but not 2008–2009. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses had been introduced into the pig population in Indonesia on at least 3 occasions. One isolate had acquired the ability to recognize a human-type receptor. No infected pig had influenza-like symptoms, indicating that influenza A (H5N1) viruses can replicate undetected for prolonged periods, facilitating avian virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. Our data suggest that pigs are at risk for infection during outbreaks of influenza virus A (H5N1) and can serve as intermediate hosts in which this avian virus can adapt to mammals.

  • Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka PDF Version [PDF - 297 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Robertson et al.
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    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders.

  • Oral Fluid Testing during 10 Years of Rubella Elimination, England and Wales PDF Version [PDF - 324 KB - 7 pages]
    G. Manikkavasagan et al.
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    Surveillance of rubella in England and Wales has included immunoglobulin M testing of oral (crevicular) fluid from reported case-patients since 1994. The need for laboratory confirmation to monitor rubella elimination is emphasized by poor sensitivity (51%, 95% confidence interval 48.9%–54.0%) and specificity (55%, 95% confidence interval 53.7%–55.6%) of the clinical case definition. During 1999–2008, oral fluid from 11,709 (84%) of 13,952 reported case-patients was tested; 143 (1.0%) cases were confirmed and 11,566 (99%) were discarded (annual investigation and discard rate of clinically suspected rubella cases was 2,208/100,000 population). Incidence of confirmed rubella increased from 0.50 to 0.77/1 million population when oral fluid testing was included. Oral fluid tests confirmed that cases were more likely to be in older, unvaccinated men. Testing of oral fluid has improved ascertainment of confirmed rubella in children and men and provided additional information for assessing UK progress toward the World Health Organization elimination goal.

  • Human Monkeypox Outbreak Caused by Novel Virus Belonging to Congo Basin Clade, Sudan, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Formenty et al.
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    This virus should be considered endemic to the wetland areas of Bentiu, Unity State, Sudan.

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    To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a retrospective investigation. MPXV was identified in a sub-Sahelian savannah environment. Three case notification categories were used: suspected, probable, and confirmed. Molecular, virologic, and serologic assays were used to test blood specimens, vesicular swabs, and crust specimens obtained from symptomatic and recovering persons. Ten laboratory-confirmed cases and 9 probable cases of MPXV were reported during September–December 2005; no deaths occurred. Human-to-human transmission up to 5 generations was described. Our investigation could not fully determine the source of the outbreak. Preliminary data indicate that the MPXV strain isolated during this outbreak was a novel virus belonging to the Congo Basin clade. Our results indicate that MPXV should be considered endemic to the wetland areas of Unity State. This finding will enhance understanding of the ecologic niche for this virus.

  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Slow Response to Tuberculosis Treatment in a State Control Program, Virginia, USA PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 8 pages]
    S. K. Heysell et al.
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    Diabetes was associated with increased risk for slow response and low rifampin levels.

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    Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in tuberculosis management, but programmatic implementation is understudied. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine prevalence of lower than expected levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide measured at time of estimated peak serum concentration. Patients were tested for serum concentration at 2 hours after medication administration. When patients were tested, 22 had concentrations lower than expected range for rifampin, 23 of 39 patients had low levels of isoniazid, and 8 of 26 patients had low levels of ethambutol; all 20 patients tested for pyrazinamide were within expected range. Over 26 months, 42 patients met criteria for slow response. Diabetes was associated with slow response (p<0.001), and persons with diabetes were more likely than persons without diabetes to have low rifampin levels (p = 0.03). Dosage adjustment of rifampin was more likely to elevate serum concentration to the target range than adjustment of isoniazid given in daily doses (p = 0.01).

  • Risk Factors for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Seroconversion among Hospital Staff, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 222 KB - 8 pages]
    M. I. Chen et al.
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    Infection was associated with occupational and nonoccupational risk factors.

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    We describe incidence and risk factors for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in healthcare personnel during the June–September 2009 epidemic in Singapore. Personnel contributed 3 serologic samples during June–October 2009, with seroconversion defined as a >4-fold increase in hemagglutination inhibition titers to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Of 531 participants, 35 showed evidence of seroconversion. Seroconversion rates were highest in nurses (28/290) and lowest in allied health staff (2/116). Significant risk factors on multivariate analysis were being a nurse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–19.6) and working in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 isolation wards (aOR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3–15.6). Contact with pandemic (H1N1) 2009–infected colleagues (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9–6.6) and larger household size (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4) were of borderline significance. Our study suggests that seroconversion was associated with occupational and nonoccupational risk factors.

  • Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment and Oseltamivir Prophylaxis during Avian Influenza A (H7N7) Epidemic, the Netherlands, 2003 PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 7 pages]
    D. E. te Beest et al.
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    Only oseltamivir use significantly reduced the risk for human infection.

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    We analyzed the effectiveness of personal protective equipment and oseltamivir use during the 2003 avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in the Netherlands by linking databases containing information about farm visits, human infections, and use of oseltamivir and personal protective equipment. Using a stringent case definition, based on self-reported conjunctivitis combined with a positive hemagglutination-inhibition assay, we found that prophylactic treatment with oseltamivir significantly reduced the risk for infection per farm visit from 0.145 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.078–0.233) to 0.031 (95% CI 0.008–0.073). The protective effect was ≈79% (95% CI 40%–97%). These results are comparable with the reported effect of prophylactic treatment with oseltamivir on human seasonal influenza. No significant protective effect was found for use of respirators or safety glasses, possibly because of limitations of the data.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Bloodstream Infections among HIV-Infected Outpatients, Southeast Asia PDF Version [PDF - 291 KB - 8 pages]
    J. K. Varma et al.
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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the most common pathogen.

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    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of illness in HIV-infected persons. To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for BSIs in 2,009 HIV-infected outpatients in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam, we performed a single Myco/F Lytic blood culture. Fifty-eight (2.9%) had a clinically significant BSI (i.e., a blood culture positive for an organism known to be a pathogen). Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for 31 (54%) of all BSIs, followed by fungi (13 [22%]) and bacteria (9 [16%]). Of patients for whom data were recorded about antiretroviral therapy, 0 of 119 who had received antiretroviral therapy for >14 days had a BSI, compared with 3% of 1,801 patients who had not. In multivariate analysis, factors consistently associated with BSI were fever, low CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, abnormalities on chest radiograph, and signs or symptoms of abdominal illness. For HIV-infected outpatients with these risk factors, clinicians should place their highest priority on diagnosing tuberculosis.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Changing Epidemiology of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections PDF Version [PDF - 319 KB - 9 pages]
    R. M. Thomson
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    Pattern of disease has changed from cavitary disease in middle-aged men who smoke to fibronodular disease in elderly women.

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    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is a notifiable condition in Queensland, Australia. Mycobacterial isolates that require species identification are forwarded to the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory, providing a central opportunity to capture statewide data on the epidemiology of NTM disease. We compared isolates obtained in 1999 and 2005 and used data from the Queensland notification scheme to report the clinical relevance of these isolates. The incidence of notified cases of clinically significant pulmonary disease rose from 2.2 (1999) to 3.2 (2005) per 100,000 population. The pattern of disease has changed from predominantly cavitary disease in middle-aged men who smoke to fibronodular disease in elderly women. Mycobacterium intracellulare is the main pathogen associated with the increase in isolates speciated in Queensland.

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