Volume 16, Number 9—September 2010
Toscana Virus Infection in American Traveler Returning from Sicily, 2009
To the Editor: Since the discovery of Toscana virus (TOSV) in 1971 in Tuscany (1), sandfly-borne TOSV has become recognized as a leading cause of acute meningitis in central Italy during the summer (2). France, Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Cyprus have also reported cases of TOSV infection (2). Although TOSV has been detected in sandflies in Sicily (3), we are not aware of any historically documented human infection with TOSV in this southernmost region of Italy.
We report TOSV infection of an American male physician, 65 years of age, who traveled to Sicily for 3 weeks and returned to the United States in October 2009. Two days after his return, he awoke with a headache, and hours later he noticed difficulty finding words. His headache progressed, and during the next few hours, he experienced severe expressive dysphasia. At admission to the hospital, he denied having fever, nuchal rigidity, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
Other than changing planes in Milan, the patient had remained in Sicily during the entire 3 weeks of his visit. He had sustained both mosquito and what he thought were flea bites while in Sicily. He had no known exposure to bats, rabid animals, or ticks.
Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no mass lesions or abnormality of the cerebral vessels. A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained at admission showed 14 leukocytes/mm3 (reference range 0–5 leukocyte/mm3) with 100% lymphocytes, a protein level of 126 mg/dL (reference range 15–45 mg/dL), and a glucose level of 63 mg/dL (reference range 50–80 mg/dL). A nasopharyngeal swab specimen was negative for influenza A and B virus antigens. Other than a decreased thrombocyte count and an elevated serum glucose level, the results of complete blood count, comprehensive chemical panel, and coagulation studies were within normal limits. PCR results for CSF were negative for herpes simplex virus, enterovirus, and parechovirus. Test results for acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum specimens performed at the Washington State Department of Health Laboratory were negative for West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M.
Serum and CSF were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Fort Collins, Colorado. TOSV RNA was detected in a CSF sample collected on day 1 of illness by using reverse transcription–PCR (4). Plaque-reduction neutralization assays demonstrated a >4-fold rise in TOSV neutralizing antibodies between paired serum specimens collected on days 1 (titer <1:10) and 21 (titer 1:320) of illness. No similar rise in neutralizing antibodies to serologically related phleboviruses (e.g., sandfly fever Naples virus and sandfly fever Sicilian virus) was detected. The patient received supportive care only. He had a complete neurologic recovery in 10 days and was able to return to work.
Phylogenetic analyses indicate that 2 geographically distinct genotypes, the Italian and Spanish lineages of TOSV, circulate throughout the Mediterranean region (5). To determine the lineage of the infecting strain, we performed advanced molecular analyses of TOSV RNA isolated from the infected traveler’s CSF. These analyses used published consensus primers that target the small (S) segment (4) as well as primers newly designed to target the medium (M) segment: M 851F, 5′-ACCAAATACAACCATAGCCCC-3′ (forward) and M 1327c, 5′-ATACAATTCCCACAGTCGTTAG-3′ (reverse) of the multisegment TOSV genome. Reverse transcription–PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing generated 2 nt sequences of 332 (S segment) and 424 (M segment) nucleotides in length. Phylogenetic analyses of the newly determined sequences and sequences previously determined for Mediterranean TOSV isolates of diverse origin were carried out by using MEGA version 4 (6). According to phylogenetic inference, the TOSV RNA identified in the returning traveler is of the Italian lineage (Figure). Of interest, the TOSV M segment sequence generated from this patient aggregates with extreme bootstrap support along with that generated previously from a strain of TOSV that was isolated from sand flies in Palermo, Sicily, in 1993 (Figure), indicating that the infecting strain is likely representative of strains that have circulated in Sicily for years.
This case represents the third report of meningitis or meningoencephalitis caused by TOSV infection in a US traveler to the Mediterranean (all acquired in Italy) (7,8). As is shown by this and other recent reports of TOSV infections in the Mediterranean islands surrounding Italy (9), the geographic range of TOSV human infections is larger than previously known. Reports of TOSV infection among European travelers returning from disease-endemic regions have provided additional evidence of the emergence of TOSV-related illness on a global scale (10).
Although the clinical course varies from asymptomatic infection to severe meningoencephalitis, TOSV should be included in the differential list of viral pathogens among patients who seek treatment with symptoms consistent with meningitis or encephalitis if the patients have recently traveled to Mediterranean areas, including Sicily. Because neither a vaccine nor specific antiviral drug treatment is available to prevent or treat TOSV infection, travelers to TOSV-endemic areas should be advised to take all precautions to prevent insect bites.
We thank Jeffrey S. Duchin and Tao Sheng Kwan-Gett for their outstanding help with this case report.
- Verani P, Ciufolini MG, Nicoletti L, Balducci M, Sabatinelli G, Coluzzi M, Ecological and epidemiological studies of Toscana virus, an arbovirus isolated from Phlebotomus [in Italian]. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1982;18:397–9.
- Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Mari JM, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sánchez-Seco MP, Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1657–63.
- Venturi G, Ciccozzi M, Montieri S, Bartoloni A, Francisci D, Nicoletti L, Genetic variability of the M genome segment of clinical and environmental Toscana virus strains. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1288–94.
- Lambert AJ, Lanciotti RS. Consensus amplification and novel multiplex sequencing method for S segment species identification of 47 viruses of the Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2398–404.
- Sánchez-Seco MP, Echevarría JM, Hernández L, Estévez D, Navarro-Marí JM, Tenorio A. Detection and identification of Toscana and other phleboviruses by RT-nested-PCR assays with degenerated primers. J Med Virol. 2003;71:140–9.
- Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA 4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:1596–9.
- Di Nicuolo G, Pagliano P, Battisti S, Starace M, Mininni V, Attanasio V, Toscana virus central nervous system infections in southern Italy. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:6186–8.
- Calisher CH, Weinberg A, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS. Toscana virus in United States citizen returning from Italy. Lancet. 1987;1:165–6.
- Sonderegger B, Hachler H, Dobler G, Frei M. Imported aseptic meningitis due to Toscana virus acquired on the island of Elba, Italy, August 2008. [PMID: 19161712]. Euro Surveill. 2009;14:1–2.
- Dobler G, Treib J, Haass A, Frösner G, Woesner R, Schimrigk K. Toscana virus infection in German travellers returning from the Mediterranean. Infection. 1997;25:325.
Suggested citation for this article: Kay MK, Gibney KB, Riedo FX, Kosoy OL, Lanciotti RS, Lambert AJ. Toscana virus infection in American traveler returning from Sicily, 2009 [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2010 Sep [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1609.100505
Comments to the Authors
Zombies—A Pop Culture Resource for Public Health Awareness