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Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011


Proximity to Goat Farms and Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women

Wim van der HoekComments to Author , Jamie C.E. Meekelenkamp, Frederika Dijkstra, Daan W. Notermans, Ben Bom, Piet Vellema, Ariene Rietveld, Yvonne T.H.P. van Duynhoven, and Alexander C.A.P. Leenders
Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (W. van der Hoek, F. Dijkstra, D.W. Notermans, B. Bom, Y.T.H.P. van Duynhoven); Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ’s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands (J.C.E. Meekelenkamp, A.C.A.P. Leenders); Animal Health Service, Deventer, the Netherlands (P. Vellema); Municipal Health Service “Hart voor Brabant,” ’s-Hertogenbosch (A. Rietveld)

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Table 2

Multivariate logistic regression models for Coxiella burnetii IgG II seropositivity and serologic indication for possible recent infection based on house location of 2,004 pregnant women, the Netherlands, 2007–2009*

Variable OR (95% CI)
IgG II titer >64 Possible recent infection†
Distance to nearest farm with clinical Q fever, km
<2.0 2.38 (1.19–4.73) 6.68 (2.53–17.64)
2.0–4.9 1.12 (0.74–1.71) 2.82 (1.34–5.92)
>5 Reference Reference
No. infected farms within 5 km
>1 0.92 (0.46–1.85)
0 Reference
Total no. locations with sheep or goats within 5 km
>140 1.29 (0.95–1.76)
<140 Reference
Address density of neighborhood, addresses/km2
<500 1.85 (1.23–2.78) 1.32 (0.65–2.70)
>500 Reference Reference

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. Blank cells indicate variable not included.
†IgM antibody titer to phase II antigen >64 combined with either an IgG II or IgM I titer >64.
‡Neighborhoods were categorized as not urban if the address density was <500 addresses/km2 and urban if >500/km2.

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