Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011

Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011   PDF Version [PDF - 6.87 MB]


  • Medscape CME Activity
    Risk for Rabies Importation from North Africa PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Gautret et al.
    View Summary

    Travelers could reintroduce rabies into western Europe.

        View Abstract

    A retrospective study conducted in France indicated that a large proportion of patients injured by potentially rabid animals while in North Africa did not seek pretravel advice, and some had not received proper rabies postexposure prophylaxis while in North Africa. As a result, imported human rabies cases are still being reported, and the need for postexposure prophylaxis after exposure in North Africa is not declining. Tourists are generally unaware of the danger of importing potentially rabid animals and of the rules governing the movement of pets. In France, for example, rabid dogs have frequently been imported from Morocco to France through Spain. This situation imposes heavy social and economic costs and impedes rabies control in Europe. Rabies surveillance and control should therefore be reinforced in North Africa, and travelers to North Africa should receive appropriate information about rabies risk and prevention.


  • Medscape CME Activity
    Worldwide Occurrence and Impact of Human Trichinellosis, 1986–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 9 pages]
    K. D. Murrell and E. Pozio
    View Summary

    Global reporting varies greatly; infections occur predominantly in adults, probably from culture-driven food behavior.

        View Abstract

    To assess the global incidence and clinical effects of human trichinellosis, we analyzed outbreak report data for 1986–2009. Searches of 6 international databases yielded 494 reports. After applying strict criteria for relevance and reliability, we selected 261 reports for data extraction. From 1986 through 2009, there were 65,818 cases and 42 deaths reported from 41 countries. The World Health Organization European Region accounted for 87% of cases; 50% of those occurred in Romania, mainly during 1990–1999. Incidence in the region ranged from 1.1 to 8.5 cases per 100,000 population. Trichinellosis affected primarily adults (median age 33.1 years) and about equally affected men (51%) and women. Major clinical effects, according to 5,377 well-described cases, were myalgia, diarrhea, fever, facial edema, and headaches. Pork was the major source of infection; wild game sources were also frequently reported. These data will be valuable for estimating the illness worldwide.


  • Sealpox Virus in Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Facilities, North America, 2007–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 197 KB - 6 pages]
    A. A. Roess et al.
    View Summary

    Risks for human infection may be appreciable and can be reduced by workplace education.

        View Abstract

    Sealpox, a zoonotic disease affecting pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), can occur among captive and convalescing animals. We surveyed 1 worker each from 11 marine mammal centers and interviewed 31 other marine mammal workers to ascertain their knowledge of and experience with sealpox virus and to identify factors associated with sealpox virus outbreaks among pinnipeds in marine rehabilitation facilities. Demographic and health data were obtained for 1,423 pinnipeds at the 11 facilities. Among the 23 animals in which sealpox was clinically diagnosed, 4 arrived at the facility ill, 11 became ill <5 weeks after arrival, and 2 became ill >5 weeks after arrival; the timing of illness onset was unknown for 6 animals. Most infections occurred in pinnipeds <1 year of age. Nine affected animals were malnourished; 4 had additional illnesses. Sealpox had also occurred among workers at 2 facilities. Sealpox is a noteworthy zoonosis of rehabilitating convalescing pinnipeds; workplace education can help to minimize risks for human infection.

  • Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela PDF Version [PDF - 231 KB - 7 pages]
    M. L. Milazzo et al.
    View Summary

    Secretions and excretions from virus-infected cane mice and cotton rats might transmit disease to humans.

        View Abstract

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans.

  • Hepatitis E Virus in Rats, Los Angeles, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 7 pages]
    R. H. Purcell et al.
    View Summary

    This virus is unlikely to be a zoonotic threat.

        View Abstract

    The role of rats in human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections remains controversial. A genetically distinct HEV was recently isolated from rats in Germany, and its genome was sequenced. We have isolated a genetically similar HEV from urban rats in Los Angeles, California, USA, and characterized its ability to infect laboratory rats and nonhuman primates. Two strains of HEV were isolated from serum samples of 134 wild rats that had a seroprevalence of antibodies against HEV of ≈80%. Virus was transmissible to seronegative Sprague-Dawley rats, but transmission was spotty and magnitude and duration of infection were not robust. Viremia was higher in nude rats. Serologic analysis and reverse transcription PCR were comparably sensitive in detecting infection. The sequence of the Los Angeles virus was virtually identical to that of isolates from Germany. Rat HEV was not transmissible to rhesus monkeys, suggesting that it is not a source of human infection.

  • Enterovirus Co-infections and Onychomadesis after Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, Spain, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 360 KB - 9 pages]
    M. A. Bracho et al.
    View Summary

    Mixed infection of enteroviruses may explain the rare complication of nail shedding.

    Onychomadesis after HFMD

        View Abstract

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a common disease caused by enteroviruses (EVs), usually affects children. Clustered and sporadic HFMD cases, followed by onychomadesis (nail shedding), occurred during summer and fall 2008 in Valencia, Spain. Fecal samples from onychomadesis patients, who did or did not have previous HFMD, and from healthy children exposed to onychomadesis patients tested positive for EV. The complete viral protein 1 capsid gene sequence was obtained for typing and phylogenetic analysis. Two EV serotypes, coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1), were mainly detected as a monoinfection or co-infection in a childcare center where an onychomadesis outbreak occurred. On the basis of our results, and detection of CVB1 in 2 other contemporary onychomadesis outbreaks in childcare centers in Spain, we propose that mixed infection of an EV serotype that causes HFMD, plus the serotype CVB1, could explain the emergence after HFMD of onychomadesis, a rare and late complication.

  • Experimental Infection of Horses with Hendra Virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands PDF Version [PDF - 470 KB - 7 pages]
    G. A. Marsh et al.
    View Summary

    Early consideration of HeV and institution of infection control are critical for reducing human risk.

        View Abstract

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  • Lineage and Virulence of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Isolates from North America PDF Version [PDF - 234 KB - 6 pages]
    N. Fittipaldi et al.
    View Summary

    Two sequence types predominate and have lower virulence than other types.

        View Abstract

    We performed multilocus sequence typing of 64 North American Streptococcus suis serotype 2 porcine isolates. Strains were sequence type (ST) 28 (51%), ST25 (44%), and ST1 (5%). We identified nonrandom associations between STs and expression of the virulence markers suilysin (SLY), muramidase-relased protein (MRP), and extracellular factor (EF). Expression of pili encoded by the srtF and srtG pilus clusters was also nonrandomly associated with STs. ST1 strains were SLY+ EF+ MRP+ srtF pilus+ srtG pilus−. ST25 strains were SLY− EF− MRP− srtF pilus− srtG pilus+, and most ST28 strains were SLY− MRP+ EF− srtF pilus+ srtG pilus+. ST28 isolates proved essentially nonvirulent in a mouse infection model; ST25 strains showed moderate virulence and ST1 isolates were highly virulent. ST1 is responsible for a high proportion of S. suis disease in humans worldwide. Its presence in North America indicates that potential zoonotic S. suis outbreaks in this continent cannot be disregarded.

  • West Nile Virus Infection of Birds, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 387 KB - 8 pages]
    S. Guerrero-Sánchez et al.
    View Summary

    Birds of 2 of 3 passerine species died after experimental infection with 2 strains from Mexico.

        View Abstract

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006–2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  • Isolation of Prion with BSE Properties from Farmed Goat PDF Version [PDF - 633 KB - 9 pages]
    J. Spiropoulos et al.
    View Summary

    BSE can infect small ruminants and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie.

        View Abstract

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded.

  • Candidate Cell Substrates, Vaccine Production, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Piccardo et al.
    View Summary

    Candidate cell substrates neither accumulated abnormal prion protein nor propagated infectivity.

        View Abstract

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents have contaminated human tissue–derived medical products, human blood components, and animal vaccines. The objective of this study was to determine the potential susceptibility to infection of 5 cell lines used or proposed for manufacture of biological products, as well as other lines. Cell lines were exposed to the infectious agents of sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Exposed cultures were tested for TSE-associated prion protein (PrPTSE) and TSE infectivity by assay in rodents and nonhuman primates. No PrPTSE or infectivity has been detected in any exposed cell line under study so far. Animals inoculated with BSE brain homogenate developed typical spongiform encephalopathy. In contrast, animals inoculated with cells exposed to the BSE agent remained asymptomatic. All cell lines we studied resisted infection with 3 TSE agents, including the BSE agent.

  • Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus PDF Version [PDF - 338 KB - 7 pages]
    A. A. Grobbelaar et al.
    View Summary

    Large-scale vaccination of animals might have influenced virus evolution.

        View Abstract

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  • Novel Multiplexed HIV/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Detection Assay PDF Version [PDF - 418 KB - 10 pages]
    S. Ahuka-Mundeke et al.
    View Summary

    This assay identified new simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat.

        View Abstract

    Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat was infected with SIVs, and new SIV lineages were identified. Highest SIV prevalences were seen in red-tailed guenons (25%) and Tshuapa red colobus monkeys (24%), representing the most common hunted primate species, thus increasing the likelihood for cross-species transmission. Additional studies are needed to determine whether other SIVs crossed the species barrier. With the newly developed assay, large-scale screening against many antigens is now easier and faster.

  • Astroviruses in Rabbits PDF Version [PDF - 320 KB - 7 pages]
    V. Martella et al.
    View Summary

    A novel astrovirus was found more frequently in rabbits with enteric disease than in asymptomatic animals.

    Keywords: astrovirus, rabbit, enteritis, colitis, viruses

        View Abstract

    By screening rabbits with enterocolitis or enteritis complex and asymptomatic rabbits, we identified a novel astrovirus. The virus was distantly related (19.3%–23.7% aa identity) in the capsid precursor to other mammalian astroviruses within the Mamastrovirus genus. By using real-time reverse transcription PCR, with specific primers and probes and targeting a conserved stretch in open reading frame 1b, we found rabbit astrovirus in 10 (43%) of 23 samples from animals with enteric disease and in 25 (18%) of 139 samples from asymptomatic animals in Italy during 2005–2008. The mean and median titers in the positive animals were 102× and 103× greater, respectively, in the symptomatic animals than in the asymptomatic animals. These findings support the idea that rabbit astroviruses should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of rabbit enteric disease and animal experiments to increase information obtained about their epidemiology and potential pathogenic role.

  • A Pilot Study of Host Genetic Variants Associated with Influenza-associated Deaths among Children and Young Adults PDF Version [PDF - 210 KB - 9 pages]
    J. M. Ferdinands et al.
    View Summary

    Low-producing MBL2 genotypes may have increased risk for MRSA co-infection.

        View Abstract

    We compared the prevalence of 8 polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor and mannose-binding lectin genes among 105 children and young adults with fatal influenza with US population estimates and determined in subanalyses whether these polymorphisms were associated with sudden death and bacterial co-infection among persons with fatal influenza. No differences were observed in genotype prevalence or minor allele frequencies between persons with fatal influenza and the reference sample. Fatal cases with low-producing MBL2 genotypes had a 7-fold increased risk for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) co-infection compared with fatal cases with high- and intermediate-producing MBL2 genotypes (odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6–32.1). Limited analysis of 2 genes important to the innate immune response found no association between genetic variants and fatal influenza infection. Among children and young adults who died of influenza, low-producing MBL2 genotypes may have increased risk for MRSA co-infection.


  • Severe Human Bocavirus Infection, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB]
    R. W. Körner et al.
        View Abstract

    Human bocavirus (HBoV), discovered in 2005, can cause respiratory disease or no symptoms at all. We confirmed HBoV infection in an 8-month-old girl with hypoxia, respiratory distress, wheezing, cough, and fever. This case demonstrates that lower respiratory tract infection caused by HBoV can lead to severe and life-threatening disease.

  • Continuing Threat of Influenza (H5N1) Virus Circulation in Egypt PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Peiris et al.
        View Abstract

    Reservoirs for the continuing influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt are ill-defined. Through active surveillance, we detected highly pathogenic influenza subtype H5 viruses in all poultry sectors; incidence was 5%. No other subtypes were found. Continued circulation of influenza (H5N1) viruses in various regions and poultry sectors perpetuates human exposure in Egypt.

  • Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors, France PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Mansuy et al.
        View Abstract

    Using a validated sensitive assay, we found hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG in 52.5% of voluntary blood donors in southwestern France. This finding suggests HEV is highly endemic to this region. The high HEV prevalence may reflect local dietary practices, such as eating uncooked pork and game products.

  • Human Cardioviruses, Meningitis, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Children PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Drexler et al.
        View Abstract

    Cardioviruses cause myocarditis and encephalomyelitis in rodents; human cardioviruses have not been ascribed to any disease. We screened 6,854 cerebrospinal fluid and 10 myocardium specimens from children and adults. A genotype 2 cardiovirus was detected from a child who died of sudden infant death syndrome, and 2 untypeable cardioviruses were detected from 2 children with meningitis.

  • Seroprevalence of Alkhurma and Other Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, Saudi Arabia PDF Version [PDF - 161 KB]
    Z. A. Memish et al.
        View Abstract

    A 2009 deployment of military units from several Saudi Arabian provinces to Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia, enabled us to evaluate exposure to Alkhurma, Crimean-Congo, dengue, and Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever viruses. Seroprevalence to all viruses was low; however, Alkhurma virus seroprevalence was higher (1.3%) and less geographically restricted than previously thought.

  • Knowledge of Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry Workers, Hong Kong, China PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 3 pages]
    J. H. Kim et al.
    View Summary

    Although avian influenza (H1N1), or bird flu, might not be getting as much attention since the first cases were found in Hong Kong in 1997, it hasn’t gone away and still infects and kills dozens of persons every year. Researchers remained concerned about its potential to cause a large-scale, global outbreak. Because Hong Kong is one of the world’s most densely populated places, persons living there are at high risk for a rapidly spreading outbreak, particularly because wholesale markets selling live poultry are common. Do Hong Kong residents still perceive that they are at risk for bird flu, and are they taking the right steps to prevent it? One study surveyed Hong Kong residents over time and found that they are less worried about buying live poultry and about contracting with bird flu. These changes in perception of risk were associated with a decline in handwashing and covering coughs and sneezes, both of which help prevent influenza infections. A second study focused on poultry workers in Hong Kong and found a low level of knowledge about bird flu. Although many workers knew the symptoms, they were less likely to know how the disease is spread and how deadly it is. They also reported moderate to low levels of hand hygiene and other preventive measures.

        View Abstract

    In 2009, a cross-sectional survey of 360 poultry workers in Hong Kong, China, showed that workers had inadequate levels of avian influenza (H5N1) risk knowledge, preventive behavior, and outbreak preparedness. The main barriers to preventive practices were low perceived benefits and interference with work. Poultry workers require occupation-specific health promotion.

  • Risk for Human African Trypanosomiasis, Central Africa, 2000–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 3 pages]
    P. P. Simarro et al.
        View Abstract

    Comprehensive georeference records for human African trypanosomiasis in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon were combined with human population layers to estimate a kernel-smoothed relative risk function. Five risk categories were mapped, and ≈3.5 million persons were estimated to be at risk for this disease.

  • Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Madani et al.
        View Abstract

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union.

  • Genogroup I and II Picobirnaviruses in Respiratory Tracts of Pigs PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
    S. L. Smits et al.
        View Abstract

    Sequence-independent amplification and specific reverse transcription PCRs identified genogroup I and II picobirnaviruses in respiratory tracts of pigs. These data expand knowledge of picobirnavirus diversity and tropism. Genetic relationships between porcine respiratory and human enteric picobirnaviruses suggest cross-species transmission of picobirnaviruses between pigs and humans.

  • High Prevalence of Human Liver Infection by Amphimerus spp. Flukes, Ecuador PDF Version [PDF - 363 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Calvopiña et al.
        View Abstract

    Amphimerus spp. flukes are known to infect mammals, but human infections have not been confirmed. Microscopy of fecal samples from 397 persons from Ecuador revealed Opisthorchiidae eggs in 71 (24%) persons. Light microscopy of adult worms and scanning electron microscopy of eggs were compatible with descriptions of Amphimerus spp. This pathogen was only observed in communities that consumed undercooked fish.

  • Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Imported into the Netherlands, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 395 KB - 3 pages]
    J. E. Brown et al.
    View Summary

    Aedes aegypti are among the world’s most dangerous mosquitoes. Increases in commerce and travel have complicated the control of these mosquitoes because they facilitate spread of the mosquitoes to areas outside their normal habitat. To protect against the viruses these mosquitoes can carry (such as dengue and yellow fever viruses), we need to know where the mosquitoes come from and how they are being transported. Typically, they are found in tropical or subtropical climates, so their appearance in 2 tire yards in the Netherlands in 2010 was quite surprising. Using genetic markers, researchers traced the origin of the mosquitoes in the Netherlands to a tire shipment from Miami, Fla., where Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are more common.

        View Abstract

    During summer 2010, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were discovered in the Netherlands. Using genetic markers, we tracked the origin of these mosquitoes to a tire shipment from Miami, Florida, USA. Surveillance of tire exports from the United States should be included as part of a comprehensive surveillance system.

  • Fatal Outbreak of Mycoplasma capricolum Pneumonia in Endangered Markhors PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB]
    S. Ostrowski et al.
        View Abstract

    A pneumonia outbreak reduced the numbers of a wild population of endangered markhors (Capra falconeri) in Tajikistan in 2010. The infection was diagnosed by histologic examination and bacteriologic testing. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was the sole infectious agent detected. Cross-species transmission from domestic goats may have occurred.

  • Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars PDF Version [PDF - 293 KB - 4 pages]
    C. Gabriel et al.
        View Abstract

    Since 2007, African swine fever has spread from the Caucasus region. To learn more about the dynamics of the disease in wild boars (Sus scrofa), we conducted experiments by using European wild boars. We found high virulence of Caucasus isolates limited potential for establishment of endemicity.

  • Novel Sylvatic Rabies Virus Variant in Endangered Golden Palm Civet, Sri Lanka PDF Version [PDF - 342 KB - 4 pages]
    T. Matsumoto et al.
        View Abstract

    Information is scarce about sylvatic rabies virus in Asia and about rabies in palm civets. We report a novel sylvatic rabies virus variant detected in a golden palm civet in Sri Lanka. Evolutionary analysis suggests the virus diverged from canine rabies viruses in Sri Lanka in ≈1933 (range 1886–1963).

  • Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma maculatum Ticks, North Carolina, USA, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 408 KB - 4 pages]
    A. S. Varela-Stokes et al.
        View Abstract

    We detected Rickettsia parkeri in 20%−33% of Amblyomma maculatum ticks sampled in North Carolina. Results highlight the high frequencies of R. parkeri–infected ticks in the state with the highest annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Epidemiologic studies are needed to definitively link R. parkeri to cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis.

  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype Replacement, Taiwan, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Chen et al.
        View Abstract

    Genotype I of Japanese encephalitis virus first appeared in Taiwan in 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of 37 viruses from pig farms in 2009–2010 classified these viruses into 2 unique subclusters of genotype I viruses and suggested multiple introductions and swift replacement of genotype III by genotype I virus in Taiwan.

  • Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Angelakis et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

  • Proximity to Goat Farms and Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence among Pregnant Women PDF Version [PDF - 266 KB - 4 pages]
    W. van der Hoek et al.
        View Abstract

    During 2007–2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions should avoid these farms.


Photo Quizzes

Another Dimension


About the Cover