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Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

Dispatch

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated Pneumonia in Children, Japan

Maki Hasegawa, Takafumi Okada, Hiroshi Sakata, Eiichi Nakayama, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Yasuji Inamo, Hideo Mugishima, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata, Miyuki Morozumi, Kimiko Ubukata, Haruo Watanabe, and Takashi TakahashiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Kitasato University, Tokyo (M. Hasegawa, T. Okada, E. Nakayama, M. Morozumi, K. Ubukata, T. Takahashi); Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (M. Hasegawa, T. Fuchigami, Y. Inamo, H. Mugishima); National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (T. Okada, S. Iwata); Asahikawa-Kosei General Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan (H. Sakata); Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (E. Nakayama); Hakujikai Memorial Hospital, Tokyo (T. Tajima); National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (H. Watanabe)

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Table 1

Demographic characteristics and clinical features of children hospitalized with pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated pneumonia, Japan, August–November 2009*

Variable Total Group A, no complications, n = 63 Group B, complications, n = 17 p value, A vs. B
Sex, M/F
57 (71.3)/23 (28.8)
46 (73.0)/17 (27.0)
11 (64.7)/6 (35.3)
0.71
Median age, y (range) 7 y (9 mo–14y) 7 y (9 mo–14 y) 6 y (4 y–12 y) 0.41
<1 y 4 (5) 4 (6.3) 0
2–5 y 14 (17.5) 11 (17.5) 3 (17.6)
>6 y
62 (77.5)
48 (76.2)
14 (82.3)

History of asthma
26 (32.5)
21 (33.3)
5 (29.4)
0.76
Admission <3 d/>4 d after symptom onset
61 (76.3)/19 (23.8)
45 (71.4)/18 (28.6)
16 (94.1)/1 ( 5.9)
0.10
Major symptoms, physical findings
Cough 66 (82.5) 53 (84.1) 13 (76.5) 0.71
Respiratory distress 29 (36.3) 17 (27.0) 12 (70.6) <0.01
Fever >38°C 74 (92.5) 58 (92.1) 16 (94.1) 0.53
Tachypnea 57 (71.3) 42 (66.6) 15 (88.2) 0.15
Inspiratory retraction 39 (48.8) 27 (42.9) 12 (70.6) 0.04
Rhonchi 48 (60.0) 40 (63.5) 8 (47.1) 0.22
 SpO2 <93
39 (48.8)
25 (39.7)
14 (82.4)
<0.01
Treatment and clinical course
O2 supplementation 49 (61.3) 34 (54.0) 15 (88.2) 0.01
Mean duration of O2 administration, d
(range) 3.5 (1–11) 2.9 (1–6) 4.7 (1–11) 0.02
Treatment with oseltamivir 67 (83.8) 51 (80.9) 16 (94.1) 0.35
Treatment with antimicrobial drugs† 63 (78.8) 46 (73.0) 17 (100) 0.04
Isoproterenol inhalation
6 (7.5)
0
6 (35.3)
<0.01
Median duration of hospitalization, d (range) 6 (3–18) 6 (3–9) 8 (5–18) <0.01

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. SpO2, percutaneous oxygen saturation while breathing room air.
†Parenteral infusion of sulbuctum/ampicillin or cefazoin was carried out for 3–5 d.

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