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Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011

Research

Targeted Drug-Resistance Testing Strategy for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Detection, Lima, Peru, 2005–2008

Gustavo E. Velásquez, Martin Yagui, J. Peter Cegielski, Luis Asencios, Jaime Bayona, Cesar Bonilla, Hector O. Jave, Gloria Yale, Carmen Suárez, Sidney Atwood, Carmen C. Contreras, and Sonya S. ShinComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (G.E. Velásquez, S. Atwood, S.S. Shin); Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Peru (M. Yagui, L. Asencios); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J.P. Cegielski); Socios En Salud, Lima (J. Bayona, C.C. Conteras, S.S. Shin); Partners In Health, Boston (S.S. Shin); Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA (J. Bayona); Ministerio de Salud del Perú, Lima (C. Bonilla, H.O. Jave); Dirección de Salud V Lima Ciudad, Lima (G. Yale); Dirección de Salud IV Lima Este, Lima (C. Suárez)

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Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis, by drug-resistance status, Lima, Peru, 2005–2008*

Variable Susceptible to INH and RIF, n = 661 Monoresistant to INH or RIF, n = 161 MDR TB, n = 419 Total, N = 1,241
DST method
Griess 318 (48.1) 87 (54.0) 208 (49.6) 613 (49.4)
Conventional 270 (40.9) 56 (34.8) 185 (44.2) 511 (41.2)
BACTEC 63 (9.5) 17 (10.6) 23 (5.5)† 103 (8.3)
Griess/BACTEC
10 (1.5)
1 (0.6)
3 (0.7)
14 (1.1)
Year of enrollment
  2005 175 (26.5) 44 (27.3) 130 (31.0) 349 (28.1)
  2006 233 (35.3) 47 (29.2) 127 (30.3) 407 (32.8)
  2007 178 (26.9) 48 (29.8) 106 (25.3) 332 (26.8)
  2008
75 (11.4)
22 (13.7)
56 (13.4)
153 (12.3)
Age, y, mean ± SD 35.6 ± 15.2 32.8 ± 15.1† 29.7 ± 13.1‡ 33.2 ± 14.8
Female sex 236 (35.7) 54 (33.5) 144 (34.4) 434 (35.0)
Married or lived together 272 (41.2) 48 (29.8)§ 136 (32.5)§ 456 (36.7)
Unemployed, n = 1,239 257 (38.9) 62 (38.8) 155 (37.0) 474 (38.3)
Did not begin secondary level education, n = 1,235
150 (22.9)
31 (19.3)
67 (16.0)§
248 (20.1)
Tobacco use (ever), n = 1,240 191 (28.9) 48 (29.8) 97 (23.2)† 336 (27.1)
Alcohol use or abuse (ever), n = 1,240 257 (38.9) 61 (37.9) 148 (35.3) 466 (37.6)
Illicit drug use (ever)
131 (19.8)
38 (23.6)
77 (18.4)
246 (19.8)
Weight loss, n = 1,237 543 (82.5) 126 (78.8) 330 (78.8) 999 (80.8)
Dyspnea, n = 1,238 118 (17.9) 21 (13.1) 81 (19.3) 220 (17.8)
Hemoptysis, n = 1,239 28 (4.3) 9 (5.6) 38 (9.1)§ 75 (6.1)
Cavitary lesion on chest radiography, n = 1,207 199 (16.5) 43 (3.6) 144 (11.9) 386 (32.0)
Low BMI, n = 1,233
203 (30.8)
55 (34.8)
133 (32.1)
391 (31.7)
Previous TB treatment 328 (49.6) 77 (47.8) 224 (53.5) 629 (50.7)
Type of TB
Pulmonary only 650 (98.3) 155 (96.3) 414 (98.8) 1219 (98.2)
Extrapulmonary 11 (1.7) 6 (3.7) 5 (1.2) 22 (1.8)

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. Boldface indicates significant difference in statistical comparison of baseline characteristics in the corresponding drug-resistance group to drug-susceptible cases. INH, isoniazid; RIF, rifampin; MDR TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; DST, drug-susceptibility testing; BMI, body mass index.
†p<0.05.
‡p<0.001.
§p<0.01.

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