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Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011

Research

Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections

Brianna Lindsay1, T. Ramamurthy1, Sourav Sen Gupta, Yoshifumi Takeda, Krishnan Rajendran, G. Balakrish Nair, and O. Colin StineComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (B. Lindsay, O.C. Stine); National Institute for Cholera and Enteric Disease, Kolkata, India (T. Ramamurthy, S. Sen Gupta, Y. Takeda, K. Rajendran, G.B. Nair)

Main Article

Table 2

Effect of covariates on gastrointestinal pathogen associations*

Pathogens Covariate
Age Season Gender Residence Religion After adjusting for effects
Vibrio cholerae/rotavirus
Confounder
Interaction
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant except for age strata 5–15 y
V. cholerae/adenovirus
Confounder
No effect
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant when regression adjusted for age and season (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21–0.64)
V. cholerae/Cryptosporidium spp.
Confounder
Confounder
Interaction
No effect
No effect
Significant for female, not male patients; small stratified cell sizes
V. cholerae/Giardia lamblia
Interaction
Confounder
No effect
Interaction
No effect
Significant for some age categories
V. cholerae/Shigella spp.
Interaction
No effect
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant for ages >2 y and all seasons
V. cholerae/ETEC
No effect
Interaction
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant for summer and monsoon seasons
Rotavirus/adenovirus
Interaction
Interaction
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant for all seasons and all age strata except <1 y
Rotavirus/Cryptosporidium spp.
Confounder
Confounder
No effect
No effect
No effect
Significant when regression adjusted for age and season (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11–2.41)
Rotavirus/EAEC
Confounder
No effect
No effect
No effect
Interaction
Not significant when regression adjusted for age and season (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.94–2.01); significant for age strata 2–5 y; all seasons significant
Rotavirus/Shigella spp. Confounder Confounder No effect No effect No effect Significant when regression adjusted for age and season (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.14–0.44)

*Interaction identified using Breslow-Day test for homogeneity, p<0.05. Considered statistically significant at p<0.05. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ETEC, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; EAEC, enteroaggregative E. coli.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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