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Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011

Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011   PDF Version [PDF - 6.30 MB - 195 pages]

Synopses

  • Legionella longbeachae and Legionellosis PDF Version [PDF - 136 KB - 5 pages]
    H. Whiley and R. Bentham
        View Abstract

    Reported cases of legionellosis attributable to Legionella longbeachae infection have increased worldwide. In Australia and New Zealand, L. longbeachae has been a known cause of legionellosis since the late 1980s. All cases for which a source was confirmed were associated with potting mixes and composts. Unlike the situation with other Legionella spp., L. longbeachae–contaminated water systems in the built environment that cause disease have not been reported. Spatially and temporally linked outbreaks of legionellosis associated with this organism also have not been reported. Sporadic cases of disease seem to be limited to persons who have had direct contact with potting soil or compost. Long-distance travel of the organism resulting in infection has not been reported. These factors indicate emergence of an agent of legionellosis that differs in etiology from other species and possibly in route of disease transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Whiley H, Bentham R. Legionella longbeachae and Legionellosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100446
    AMA Whiley H, Bentham R. Legionella longbeachae and Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):579-583. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100446.
    APA Whiley, H., & Bentham, R. (2011). Legionella longbeachae and Legionellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 579-583. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100446.

Research

  • Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 261 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Spijkerman et al.
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    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) program, we conducted a cross-sectional observational study on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after implementation of the program in the Netherlands. We compared pneumococcal serotypes in 329 prebooster 11-month-old children, 330 fully vaccinated 24-month-old children, and 324 parents with age-matched pre-PCV7 (unvaccinated) controls (ages 12 and 24 months, n = 319 and n = 321, respectively) and 296 of their parents. PCV7 serotype prevalences before and after PCV7 implementation, respectively, were 38% and 8% among 11-month-old children, 36% and 4% among 24-month-old children, and 8% and 1% among parents. Non-PCV7 serotype prevalences were 29% and 39% among 11-month-old children, 30% and 45% among 24-month-old children, and 8% and 15% among parents, respectively; serotypes 11A and 19A were most frequently isolated. PCV7 serotypes were largely replaced by non-PCV7 serotypes. Disappearance of PCV7 serotypes in parents suggests strong transmission reduction through vaccination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Spijkerman J, van Gils EJ, Veenhoven RH, Hak E, Yzerman F, van der Ende A, et al. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):584-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101115
    AMA Spijkerman J, van Gils EJ, Veenhoven RH, et al. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):584-591. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101115.
    APA Spijkerman, J., van Gils, E. J., Veenhoven, R. H., Hak, E., Yzerman, F., van der Ende, A....Sanders, E. (2011). Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 584-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101115.
  • Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 7 pages]
    J. E. Enstone et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Enstone JE, Myles PR, Openshaw PJ, Gadd EM, Lim WS, Semple MG, et al. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):592-598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101679
    AMA Enstone JE, Myles PR, Openshaw PJ, et al. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):592-598. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101679.
    APA Enstone, J. E., Myles, P. R., Openshaw, P. J., Gadd, E. M., Lim, W. S., Semple, M. G....Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S. (2011). Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 592-598. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101679.
  • Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus PDF Version [PDF - 181 KB - 7 pages]
    D. A. Chapman et al.
        View Abstract

    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chapman DA, Darby AC, Da Silva M, Upton C, Radford AD, Dixon LK, et al. Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):599-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101283
    AMA Chapman DA, Darby AC, Da Silva M, et al. Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):599-605. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101283.
    APA Chapman, D. A., Darby, A. C., Da Silva, M., Upton, C., Radford, A. D., & Dixon, L. K. (2011). Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 599-605. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101283.
  • Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 6 pages]
    B. Lindsay et al.
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    During systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. Samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. Polymicrobial infections frequently contained Vibrio cholerae O1 and rotavirus. When these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less often (p = 10–5 to 10–33), some were detected significantly more often (p = 10–5 to 10–26), and others were detected equally as often as when V. cholerae O1 or rotavirus was absent. When data were stratified by patient age and season, many nonrandom associations remained statistically significant. The causes and effects of these nonrandom associations remain unknown.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lindsay B, Ramamurthy T, Sen Gupta S, Takeda Y, Rajendran K, Nair GB, et al. Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):606-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100939
    AMA Lindsay B, Ramamurthy T, Sen Gupta S, et al. Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):606-611. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100939.
    APA Lindsay, B., Ramamurthy, T., Sen Gupta, S., Takeda, Y., Rajendran, K., Nair, G. B....Stine, O. (2011). Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 606-611. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100939.
  • Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human PDF Version [PDF - 468 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Le Coustumier et al.
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    We report the repeated isolation of Bordetella petrii in the sputum of a 79-year-old female patient with diffuse bronchiectasis and persistence of the bacterium for >1 year. The patient was first hospitalized due to dyspnea, which developed into severe cough with purulent sputum that yielded B. petrii on culture. After this first episode, the patient was hospitalized an additional 4 times with bronchorrhea symptoms. The isolates collected were analyzed by using biochemical, genotypic, and proteomic tools. Expression of specific proteins was analyzed by using serum samples from the patient. The B. petrii isolates were compared with other B. petrii isolates collected from humans or the environment and with isolates of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii, obtained from human respiratory tract infections. Our observations indicate that B. petrii can persist in persons with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease as has been previously demonstrated for B. bronchiseptica.

        Cite This Article
    EID Le Coustumier A, Njamkepo E, Cattoir V, Guillot S, Guiso N. Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):612-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101480
    AMA Le Coustumier A, Njamkepo E, Cattoir V, et al. Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):612-618. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101480.
    APA Le Coustumier, A., Njamkepo, E., Cattoir, V., Guillot, S., & Guiso, N. (2011). Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 612-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101480.
  • Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Talaat et al.
        View Abstract

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). An intensive hand hygiene campaign was effective in reducing absenteeism caused by these illnesses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Talaat M, Afifi S, Dueger E, El-Ashry N, Marfin A, Kandeel A, et al. Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):619-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101353
    AMA Talaat M, Afifi S, Dueger E, et al. Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):619-625. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101353.
    APA Talaat, M., Afifi, S., Dueger, E., El-Ashry, N., Marfin, A., Kandeel, A....El-Sayed, N. (2011). Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 619-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101353.
  • Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 7 pages]
    M. Tryland et al.
        View Abstract

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tryland M, Okeke MI, af Segerstad CH, Mörner T, Traavik T, Ryser-Degiorgis M, et al. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):626-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.091899
    AMA Tryland M, Okeke MI, af Segerstad CH, et al. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):626-632. doi:10.3201/eid1704.091899.
    APA Tryland, M., Okeke, M. I., af Segerstad, C. H., Mörner, T., Traavik, T., & Ryser-Degiorgis, M. (2011). Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 626-632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.091899.
  • Genome Sequence of SG33 Strain and Recombination between Wild-Type and Vaccine Myxoma Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 364 KB - 6 pages]
    C. Camus-Bouclainville et al.
        View Abstract

    Myxomatosis in Europe is the result of the release of a South America strain of myxoma virus in 1952. Several attenuated strains with origins in South America or California have since been used as vaccines in the rabbit industry. We sequenced the genome of the SG33 myxoma virus vaccine strain and compared it with those of other myxoma virus strains. We show that SG33 genome carries a large deletion in its right end. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the virus isolate from which SG33 is derived results from an in vivo recombination between a wild-type South America (Lausanne) strain and a California MSD-derived strain. These findings raise questions about the use of insufficiently attenuated virus in vaccination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Camus-Bouclainville C, Gretillat M, Py R, Gelfi J, Guérin J, Bertagnoli S, et al. Genome Sequence of SG33 Strain and Recombination between Wild-Type and Vaccine Myxoma Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):633-638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101146
    AMA Camus-Bouclainville C, Gretillat M, Py R, et al. Genome Sequence of SG33 Strain and Recombination between Wild-Type and Vaccine Myxoma Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):633-638. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101146.
    APA Camus-Bouclainville, C., Gretillat, M., Py, R., Gelfi, J., Guérin, J., & Bertagnoli, S. (2011). Genome Sequence of SG33 Strain and Recombination between Wild-Type and Vaccine Myxoma Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 633-638. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101146.
  • Shedding of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Health Care Personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA PDF Version [PDF - 154 KB - 6 pages]
    M. K. Kay et al.
        View Abstract

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that health care personnel (HCP) infected with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus not work until 24 hours after fever subsides without the use of antipyretics. During an influenza outbreak, we examined the association between viral shedding and fever among infected HCP. Participants recorded temperatures daily and provided nasal wash specimens for 2 weeks after symptom onset. Specimens were tested by using PCR and culture. When they met CDC criteria for returning to work, 12 of 16 HCP (75%) (95% confidence interval 48%–93%) had virus detected by PCR, and 9 (56%) (95% confidence interval 30%–80%) had virus detected by culture. Fever was not associated with shedding duration (p = 0.65). HCP might shed virus even when meeting CDC exclusion guidelines. Further research is needed to clarify the association between viral shedding, symptoms, and infectiousness.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kay MK, Zerr DM, Englund JA, Cadwell BL, Kuypers JM, Swenson P, et al. Shedding of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Health Care Personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):639-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100866
    AMA Kay MK, Zerr DM, Englund JA, et al. Shedding of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Health Care Personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):639-644. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100866.
    APA Kay, M. K., Zerr, D. M., Englund, J. A., Cadwell, B. L., Kuypers, J. M., Swenson, P....Duchin, J. S. (2011). Shedding of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Health Care Personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 639-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100866.
  • Complete Sequence and Molecular Epidemiology of IncK Epidemic Plasmid Encoding bla PDF Version [PDF - 462 KB - 8 pages]
    J. L. Cottell et al.
        View Abstract

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global challenge for the 21st century with the emergence of resistant bacterial strains worldwide. Transferable resistance to β-lactam antimicrobial drugs, mediated by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), is of particular concern. In 2004, an ESBL-carrying IncK plasmid (pCT) was isolated from cattle in the United Kingdom. The sequence was a 93,629-bp plasmid encoding a single antimicrobial drug resistance gene, blaCTX-M-14. From this information, PCRs identifying novel features of pCT were designed and applied to isolates from several countries, showing that the plasmid has disseminated worldwide in bacteria from humans and animals. Complete DNA sequences can be used as a platform to develop rapid epidemiologic tools to identify and trace the spread of plasmids in clinically relevant pathogens, thus facilitating a better understanding of their distribution and ability to transfer between bacteria of humans and animals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cottell JL, Webber MA, Coldham NG, Taylor DL, Cerdeño-Tárraga AM, Hauser H, et al. Complete Sequence and Molecular Epidemiology of IncK Epidemic Plasmid Encoding blaCTX-M-14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):645-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101009
    AMA Cottell JL, Webber MA, Coldham NG, et al. Complete Sequence and Molecular Epidemiology of IncK Epidemic Plasmid Encoding blaCTX-M-14. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):645-652. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101009.
    APA Cottell, J. L., Webber, M. A., Coldham, N. G., Taylor, D. L., Cerdeño-Tárraga, A. M., Hauser, H....Piddock, L. J. (2011). Complete Sequence and Molecular Epidemiology of IncK Epidemic Plasmid Encoding blaCTX-M-14. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 645-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101009.
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from Ruminants in Q Fever Outbreak, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 592 KB - 8 pages]
    H. I. Roest et al.
        View Abstract

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands.

        Cite This Article
    EID Roest HI, Ruuls RC, Tilburg JJ, Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Klaassen CH, Vellema P, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from Ruminants in Q Fever Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):668-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101562
    AMA Roest HI, Ruuls RC, Tilburg JJ, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from Ruminants in Q Fever Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):668-675. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101562.
    APA Roest, H. I., Ruuls, R. C., Tilburg, J. J., Nabuurs-Franssen, M. H., Klaassen, C. H., Vellema, P....van Zijderveld, F. G. (2011). Molecular Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from Ruminants in Q Fever Outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 668-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101562.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    H275Y Mutant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Immunocompromised Patients PDF Version [PDF - 420 KB - 8 pages]
    C. Renaud et al.
        View Abstract

    Most oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses have been isolated from immunocompromised patients. To describe the clinical features, treatment, outcomes, and virologic data associated with infection from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with H275Y mutation in immunocompromised patients, we retrospectively identified 49 hematology–oncology patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Samples from 33 of those patients were tested for H275Y genotype by allele-specific real-time PCR. Of the 8 patients in whom H275Y mutations was identified, 1 had severe pneumonia; 3 had mild pneumonia with prolonged virus shedding; and 4 had upper respiratory tract infection, of whom 3 had prolonged virus shedding. All patients had received oseltamivir before the H275Y mutation was detected; 1 had received antiviral prophylaxis. Three patients excreted resistant virus for >60 days. Emergence of oseltamivir resistance is frequent in immunocompromised patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and can be associated with a wide range of clinical disease and viral kinetics.

        Cite This Article
    EID Renaud C, Boudreault AA, Kuypers JM, Lofy KH, Corey L, Boeckh MJ, et al. H275Y Mutant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):653-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101429
    AMA Renaud C, Boudreault AA, Kuypers JM, et al. H275Y Mutant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):653-660. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101429.
    APA Renaud, C., Boudreault, A. A., Kuypers, J. M., Lofy, K. H., Corey, L., Boeckh, M. J....Englund, J. A. (2011). H275Y Mutant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Immunocompromised Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 653-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101429.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Mumps Complications and Effects of Mumps Vaccination, England and Wales, 2002–2006
    C. Yung et al.
        View Abstract

    We analyzed data from hospital admissions and enhanced mumps surveillance to assess mumps complications during the largest mumps outbreak in England and Wales, 2004–2005, and their association with mumps vaccination. When compared with nonoutbreak periods, the outbreak was associated with a clear increase in hospitalized patients with orchitis, meningitis, and pancreatitis. Routine mumps surveillance and hospital data showed that 6.1% of estimated mumps patients were hospitalized, 4.4% had orchitis, 0.35% meningitis, and 0.33% pancreatitis. Enhanced surveillance data showed 2.9% of mumps patients were hospitalized, 6.1% had orchitis, 0.3% had meningitis, and 0.25% had pancreatitis. Risk was reduced for hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43–0.68), mumps orchitis (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56–0.93) and mumps meningitis (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14–0.56) when patient had received 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. The protective effect of vaccination on disease severity is critical in assessing the total effects of current and future mumps control strategies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yung C, Andrews N, Bukasa A, Brown KE, Ramsay ME. Mumps Complications and Effects of Mumps Vaccination, England and Wales, 2002–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):661-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101461
    AMA Yung C, Andrews N, Bukasa A, et al. Mumps Complications and Effects of Mumps Vaccination, England and Wales, 2002–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):661-667. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101461.
    APA Yung, C., Andrews, N., Bukasa, A., Brown, K. E., & Ramsay, M. E. (2011). Mumps Complications and Effects of Mumps Vaccination, England and Wales, 2002–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 661-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101461.

Policy Review

  • Remaining Questions about Clinical Variola Major PDF Version [PDF - 208 KB - 5 pages]
    J. M. Lane
        View Abstract

    After the recent summary of World Health Organization–authorized research on smallpox, several clinical issues remain. This policy review addresses whether early hemorrhagic smallpox is disseminated intravascular coagulation and speculates about the cause of the high mortality rate among pregnant women and whether ocular smallpox is partly the result of trachoma or vitamin A deficiency. The joint destruction common in children with smallpox might be prevented by antiviral drugs, but intraarticular infusion of antiviral drugs is unprecedented. Development of highly effective antiviral drugs against smallpox raises the issue of whether postexposure vaccination can be performed without interference by an antiviral drug. Clinicians should consider whether patients with smallpox should be admitted to general hospitals. Although an adequate supply of second-generation smallpox vaccine exists in the United States, its use is unclear. Finally, political and ethical forces suggest that destruction of the remaining stocks of live smallpox virus is now appropriate.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lane JM. Remaining Questions about Clinical Variola Major. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):676-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101960
    AMA Lane JM. Remaining Questions about Clinical Variola Major. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):676-680. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101960.
    APA Lane, J. M. (2011). Remaining Questions about Clinical Variola Major. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 676-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101960.
  • Should Remaining Stockpiles of Smallpox Virus (Variola) Be Destroyed? PDF Version [PDF - 215 KB - 2 pages]
    R. S. Weinstein
        View Abstract

    In 2011, the World Health Organization will recommend the fate of existing smallpox stockpiles, but circumstances have changed since the complete destruction of these cultures was first proposed. Recent studies suggest that variola and its experimental surrogate, vaccinia, have a remarkable ability to modify the human immune response through complex mechanisms that scientists are only just beginning to unravel. Further study that might require intact virus is essential. Moreover, modern science now has the capability to recreate smallpox or a smallpox-like organism in the laboratory in addition to the risk of nature re-creating it as it did once before. These factors strongly suggest that relegating smallpox to the autoclave of extinction would be ill advised.

        Cite This Article
    EID Weinstein RS. Should Remaining Stockpiles of Smallpox Virus (Variola) Be Destroyed?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101865
    AMA Weinstein RS. Should Remaining Stockpiles of Smallpox Virus (Variola) Be Destroyed?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):681-683. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101865.
    APA Weinstein, R. S. (2011). Should Remaining Stockpiles of Smallpox Virus (Variola) Be Destroyed?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101865.

Dispatches

  • Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Scagliarini et al.
        View Abstract

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Scagliarini A, Vaccari F, Turrini F, Bianchi A, Cordioli P, Lavazza A, et al. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):684-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101454
    AMA Scagliarini A, Vaccari F, Turrini F, et al. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):684-687. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101454.
    APA Scagliarini, A., Vaccari, F., Turrini, F., Bianchi, A., Cordioli, P., & Lavazza, A. (2011). Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 684-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101454.
  • Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi PDF Version [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
    D. W. McCormick and E. M. Molyneux
        View Abstract

    A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of cases of H. influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was high (36.7% during 1997–2009), and pneumococcus was the most common etiologic agent (57% in 2009).

        Cite This Article
    EID McCormick DW, Molyneux EM. Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):688-690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101045
    AMA McCormick DW, Molyneux EM. Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):688-690. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101045.
    APA McCormick, D. W., & Molyneux, E. M. (2011). Bacterial Meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine, Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 688-690. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101045.
  • Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
    P. W. Mak et al.
        View Abstract

    The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mak PW, Wong CK, Li OT, Chan KH, Cheung CL, Ma ES, et al. Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):691-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101726
    AMA Mak PW, Wong CK, Li OT, et al. Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):691-694. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101726.
    APA Mak, P. W., Wong, C. K., Li, O. T., Chan, K. H., Cheung, C. L., Ma, E. S....Poon, L. (2011). Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 691-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101726.
  • Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie PDF Version [PDF - 359 KB - 4 pages]
    L. Pirisinu et al.
        View Abstract

    Sheep CH1641-like transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolates have shown molecular similarities to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates. We report that the prion protein PrPSc from sheep BSE is extremely resistant to denaturation. This feature, combined with the N-terminal PrPSc cleavage, allowed differentiation of classical scrapie, including CH1641-like, from natural goat BSE and experimental sheep BSE.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pirisinu L, Migliore S, Di Bari MA, Esposito E, Baron T, D’Agostino C, et al. Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):695-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101215
    AMA Pirisinu L, Migliore S, Di Bari MA, et al. Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):695-698. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101215.
    APA Pirisinu, L., Migliore, S., Di Bari, M. A., Esposito, E., Baron, T., D’Agostino, C....Nonno, R. (2011). Molecular Discrimination of Sheep Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from Scrapie. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 695-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101215.
  • Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Ali et al.
        View Abstract

    Altered El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, with classical cholera toxin B gene, was isolated from 16 patients with severe diarrhea at St. Mark’s Hospital, Arbonite, Haiti, <3 weeks after onset of the current cholera epidemic. Variable-number tandem-repeat typing of 187 isolates showed minimal diversity, consistent with a point source for the epidemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ali A, Chen Y, Johnson JA, Redden E, Mayette Y, Rashid MH, et al. Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101973
    AMA Ali A, Chen Y, Johnson JA, et al. Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):699-701. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101973.
    APA Ali, A., Chen, Y., Johnson, J. A., Redden, E., Mayette, Y., Rashid, M. H....Morris, J. (2011). Recent Clonal Origin of Cholera in Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101973.
  • Drug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, South Korea PDF Version [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Y. Shin et al.
        View Abstract

    Eleven patients with drug-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were identified in South Korea during May 2009–January 2010. Virus isolates from all patients had the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene. One isolate had the I117M mutation. Of the 11 patients, 6 were <59 months of age, and 5 had underlying immunosuppressive conditions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shin SY, Kang C, Gwack J, Kim JH, Kim HS, Kang Y, et al. Drug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101467
    AMA Shin SY, Kang C, Gwack J, et al. Drug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):702-704. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101467.
    APA Shin, S. Y., Kang, C., Gwack, J., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. S., Kang, Y....Kim, S. (2011). Drug-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101467.
  • Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Sanguinetti-Morelli et al.
        View Abstract

    Cat-scratch disease is seasonal in the United States and Japan; but no data are available from Europe. To assess the seasonality of the disease in France, we analyzed lymph node biopsy specimens collected during 1999–2009. Most (87.5%) cases occurred during September–April and peaked in December.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sanguinetti-Morelli D, Angelakis E, Richet H, Davoust B, Rolain JM, Raoult D, et al. Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):705-707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100825
    AMA Sanguinetti-Morelli D, Angelakis E, Richet H, et al. Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):705-707. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100825.
    APA Sanguinetti-Morelli, D., Angelakis, E., Richet, H., Davoust, B., Rolain, J. M., & Raoult, D. (2011). Seasonality of Cat-Scratch Disease, France, 1999–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 705-707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100825.
  • Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Malaysia PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]
    H. I. Ismail et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on children in the tropics, we examined characteristics of children hospitalized for this disease in Malaysia. Of 1,362 children, 51 (3.7%) died, 46 of whom were in an intensive care unit. Although disease was usually mild, >1 concurrent conditions were associated with higher death rates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ismail HI, Tan KK, Lee YL, Pau WS, Razali KA, Mohamed T, et al. Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):708-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101212
    AMA Ismail HI, Tan KK, Lee YL, et al. Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):708-710. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101212.
    APA Ismail, H. I., Tan, K. K., Lee, Y. L., Pau, W. S., Razali, K. A., Mohamed, T....Hanif, J. (2011). Characteristics of Children Hospitalized for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Malaysia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 708-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101212.
  • Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda PDF Version [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
    G. Palacios et al.
        View Abstract

    The genetic relatedness of mountain gorillas and humans has led to concerns about interspecies transmission of infectious agents. Human-to-gorilla transmission may explain human metapneumovirus in 2 wild mountain gorillas that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in Rwanda in 2009. Surveillance is needed to ensure survival of these critically endangered animals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Palacios G, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR, Gilardi K, Spelman L, Lukasik-Braum M, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):711-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100883
    AMA Palacios G, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR, et al. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):711-713. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100883.
    APA Palacios, G., Lowenstine, L. J., Cranfield, M. R., Gilardi, K., Spelman, L., Lukasik-Braum, M....Lipkin, W. I. (2011). Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 711-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100883.
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 287 KB - 4 pages]
    T. Horimoto et al.
        View Abstract

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Horimoto T, Maeda K, Murakami S, Kiso M, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Sashika M, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):714-717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101604
    AMA Horimoto T, Maeda K, Murakami S, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):714-717. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101604.
    APA Horimoto, T., Maeda, K., Murakami, S., Kiso, M., Iwatsuki-Horimoto, K., Sashika, M....Kawaoka, Y. (2011). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 714-717. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101604.
  • Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 4 pages]
    G. E. Young et al.
        View Abstract

    During February and March 2010, the New York State Department of Health investigated secondary and tertiary vaccinia contact transmission from a military vaccinee to 4 close contacts. Identification of these cases underscores the need for strict adherence to postvaccination infection control guidance to avoid transmission of the live virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Young GE, Hidalgo CM, Sullivan-Frohm A, Schulte C, Davis S, Kelly-Cirino C, et al. Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):718-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101316
    AMA Young GE, Hidalgo CM, Sullivan-Frohm A, et al. Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):718-721. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101316.
    APA Young, G. E., Hidalgo, C. M., Sullivan-Frohm, A., Schulte, C., Davis, S., Kelly-Cirino, C....Blog, D. (2011). Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of Vaccinia Virus from US Military Service Member. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 718-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101316.
  • High Rates of Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Infection, Northern Canada PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]
    G. R. Golding et al.
        View Abstract

    Surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus infections in 3 northern remote communities of Saskatchewan was undertaken. Rates of methicillin-resistant infections were extremely high (146–482/10,000 population), and most (98.2%) were caused by USA400 strains. Although USA400 prevalence has diminished in the United States, this strain is continuing to predominate throughout many northern communities in Canada.

        Cite This Article
    EID Golding GR, Levett PN, McDonald RR, Irvine J, Quinn B, Nsungu M, et al. High Rates of Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Infection, Northern Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):722-725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100482
    AMA Golding GR, Levett PN, McDonald RR, et al. High Rates of Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Infection, Northern Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):722-725. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100482.
    APA Golding, G. R., Levett, P. N., McDonald, R. R., Irvine, J., Quinn, B., Nsungu, M....Mulvey, M. R. (2011). High Rates of Staphylococcus aureus USA400 Infection, Northern Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 722-725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100482.
  • Animal Movement and Establishment of Vaccinia Virus Cantagalo Strain in Amazon Biome, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 375 KB - 4 pages]
    J. C. Quixabeira-Santos et al.
        View Abstract

    To understand the emergence of vaccinia virus Cantagalo strain in the Amazon biome of Brazil, during 2008–2010 we conducted a molecular and epidemiologic survey of poxvirus outbreaks. Data indicate that animal movement was the major cause of virus dissemination within Rondônia State, leading to the establishment and spread of this pathogen.

        Cite This Article
    EID Quixabeira-Santos JC, Medaglia ML, Pescador CA, Damaso CR. Animal Movement and Establishment of Vaccinia Virus Cantagalo Strain in Amazon Biome, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):726-729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101581
    AMA Quixabeira-Santos JC, Medaglia ML, Pescador CA, et al. Animal Movement and Establishment of Vaccinia Virus Cantagalo Strain in Amazon Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):726-729. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101581.
    APA Quixabeira-Santos, J. C., Medaglia, M. L., Pescador, C. A., & Damaso, C. R. (2011). Animal Movement and Establishment of Vaccinia Virus Cantagalo Strain in Amazon Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 726-729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101581.
  • Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 287 KB - 4 pages]
    C. M. Hughes et al.
        View Abstract

    Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hughes CM, Blythe D, Li Y, Reddy R, Jordan C, Edwards C, et al. Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):730-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101010
    AMA Hughes CM, Blythe D, Li Y, et al. Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):730-733. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101010.
    APA Hughes, C. M., Blythe, D., Li, Y., Reddy, R., Jordan, C., Edwards, C....Damon, I. K. (2011). Vaccinia Virus Infections in Martial Arts Gym, Maryland, USA, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 730-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101010.
  • Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence PDF Version [PDF - 167 KB - 4 pages]
    U. Pérez-Sautu et al.
        View Abstract

    Six hepatitis A virus antigenic variants that likely escaped the protective effect of available vaccines were isolated, mostly from men who have sex with men. The need to complete the proper vaccination schedules is critical, particularly in the immunocompromised population, to prevent the emergence of vaccine-escaping variants.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pérez-Sautu U, Costafreda MI, Caylà J, Tortajada C, Lite J, Bosch A, et al. Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):734-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101169
    AMA Pérez-Sautu U, Costafreda MI, Caylà J, et al. Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):734-737. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101169.
    APA Pérez-Sautu, U., Costafreda, M. I., Caylà, J., Tortajada, C., Lite, J., Bosch, A....Pintó, R. M. (2011). Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 734-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101169.

Another Dimension

  • Edward Jenner Museum PDF Version [PDF - 266 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Foege
            Cite This Article
    EID Foege W. Edward Jenner Museum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):738-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101680
    AMA Foege W. Edward Jenner Museum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):738-740. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101680.
    APA Foege, W. (2011). Edward Jenner Museum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 738-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101680.

Letters

  • Acute Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis in Patient with Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Wu et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Wu S, Tsai T, Wu S. Acute Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis in Patient with Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):741-742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101035
    AMA Wu S, Tsai T, Wu S. Acute Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis in Patient with Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):741-742. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101035.
    APA Wu, S., Tsai, T., & Wu, S. (2011). Acute Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis in Patient with Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 741-742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101035.
  • Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Childcare Worker PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 3 pages]
    E. D. Moritz and T. C. Smith
            Cite This Article
    EID Moritz ED, Smith TC. Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Childcare Worker. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):742-744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101852
    AMA Moritz ED, Smith TC. Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Childcare Worker. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):742-744. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101852.
    APA Moritz, E. D., & Smith, T. C. (2011). Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Childcare Worker. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 742-744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101852.
  • Sequence Analysis of Feline Coronaviruses and the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Theory PDF Version [PDF - 415 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Chang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Chang H, Egberink HF, Rottier P. Sequence Analysis of Feline Coronaviruses and the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Theory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):744-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.102027
    AMA Chang H, Egberink HF, Rottier P. Sequence Analysis of Feline Coronaviruses and the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Theory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):744-746. doi:10.3201/eid1704.102027.
    APA Chang, H., Egberink, H. F., & Rottier, P. (2011). Sequence Analysis of Feline Coronaviruses and the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Theory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 744-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.102027.
  • Effects of Vaccination against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Japanese Children PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 2 pages]
    H. Nishiura and H. Oshitani
            Cite This Article
    EID Nishiura H, Oshitani H. Effects of Vaccination against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Japanese Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):746-747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100525
    AMA Nishiura H, Oshitani H. Effects of Vaccination against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Japanese Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):746-747. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100525.
    APA Nishiura, H., & Oshitani, H. (2011). Effects of Vaccination against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Japanese Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 746-747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100525.
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in 3 Wildlife Species, San Diego, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
    M. D. Schrenzel et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Stalis IH, Kagan RA, Burns RP, Denison AM, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in 3 Wildlife Species, San Diego, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):747-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101355
    AMA Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Stalis IH, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in 3 Wildlife Species, San Diego, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):747-749. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101355.
    APA Schrenzel, M. D., Tucker, T. A., Stalis, I. H., Kagan, R. A., Burns, R. P., Denison, A. M....Rideout, B. A. (2011). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in 3 Wildlife Species, San Diego, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 747-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101355.
  • Hemagglutinin 222 Variants in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus PDF Version [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
    M. B. Valli et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Valli MB, Selleri M, Meschi S, Zaccaro P, Vincenti D, Lalle E, et al. Hemagglutinin 222 Variants in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):749-751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100784
    AMA Valli MB, Selleri M, Meschi S, et al. Hemagglutinin 222 Variants in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):749-751. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100784.
    APA Valli, M. B., Selleri, M., Meschi, S., Zaccaro, P., Vincenti, D., Lalle, E....Menzo, S. (2011). Hemagglutinin 222 Variants in Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 749-751. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100784.
  • Effect of School Closure from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 3 pages]
    V. G. Jarquin et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Jarquin VG, Callahan DB, Cohen NJ, Balaban V, Wang R, Beato R, et al. Effect of School Closure from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):751-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100906
    AMA Jarquin VG, Callahan DB, Cohen NJ, et al. Effect of School Closure from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):751-753. doi:10.3201/eid1704.100906.
    APA Jarquin, V. G., Callahan, D. B., Cohen, N. J., Balaban, V., Wang, R., Beato, R....Massoudi, M. S. (2011). Effect of School Closure from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 751-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.100906.
  • Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010
    N. Johnson et al.
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    EID Johnson N, Freuling C, Horton D, Müller T, Fooks AR. Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):751-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101154
    AMA Johnson N, Freuling C, Horton D, et al. Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):751-753. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101154.
    APA Johnson, N., Freuling, C., Horton, D., Müller, T., & Fooks, A. R. (2011). Imported Rabies, European Union and Switzerland, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 751-753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101154.
  • Cytomegalovirus Viremia, Pneumonitis, and Tocilizumab Therapy PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]
    D. van Duin et al.
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    EID van Duin D, Miranda C, Husni E. Cytomegalovirus Viremia, Pneumonitis, and Tocilizumab Therapy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):754-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101057
    AMA van Duin D, Miranda C, Husni E. Cytomegalovirus Viremia, Pneumonitis, and Tocilizumab Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):754-756. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101057.
    APA van Duin, D., Miranda, C., & Husni, E. (2011). Cytomegalovirus Viremia, Pneumonitis, and Tocilizumab Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 754-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101057.
  • Concurrent Influenza and Shigellosis Outbreaks, Papua New Guinea, 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Rosewell et al.
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    EID Rosewell A, Dagina R, Murhekar M, Ropa B, Posanai E, Dutta S, et al. Concurrent Influenza and Shigellosis Outbreaks, Papua New Guinea, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):756-758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101021
    AMA Rosewell A, Dagina R, Murhekar M, et al. Concurrent Influenza and Shigellosis Outbreaks, Papua New Guinea, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):756-758. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101021.
    APA Rosewell, A., Dagina, R., Murhekar, M., Ropa, B., Posanai, E., Dutta, S....MacIntyre, C. (2011). Concurrent Influenza and Shigellosis Outbreaks, Papua New Guinea, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 756-758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.101021.

In Memoriam

About the Cover

  • The Fragrance of the Heifer’s Breath PDF Version [PDF - 100 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. The Fragrance of the Heifer’s Breath. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):763-764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.AC1704
    AMA Potter P. The Fragrance of the Heifer’s Breath. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):763-764. doi:10.3201/eid1704.AC1704.
    APA Potter, P. (2011). The Fragrance of the Heifer’s Breath. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 763-764. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.AC1704.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Variola and Vaccination PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 1 page]
    N. Männikkö
            Cite This Article
    EID Männikkö N. Etymologia: Variola and Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.ET1704
    AMA Männikkö N. Etymologia: Variola and Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):680. doi:10.3201/eid1704.ET1704.
    APA Männikkö, N. (2011). Etymologia: Variola and Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.ET1704.

Corrections

  • PDF Version [PDF - 122 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID . Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(4):1341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.C11704
    AMA . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(4):1341. doi:10.3201/eid1704.C11704.
    APA (2011). . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 1341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1704.C11704.
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