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Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011

Research

Diarrheagenic Pathogens in Polymicrobial Infections

Brianna Lindsay1, T. Ramamurthy1, Sourav Sen Gupta, Yoshifumi Takeda, Krishnan Rajendran, G. Balakrish Nair, and O. Colin StineComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (B. Lindsay, O.C. Stine); National Institute for Cholera and Enteric Disease, Kolkata, India (T. Ramamurthy, S. Sen Gupta, Y. Takeda, K. Rajendran, G.B. Nair)

Main Article

Table A1

Stratified odds ratios comparing the odds of Vibrio cholerae or rotavirus co-occurring with various other pathogens, relative to the odds of V. cholerae or rotavirus co-occurring independently with various additional pathogens at the frequency with which each is present in the entire sample*

Vibrio cholerae
Data Giardia lamblia
Shigella spp.
ETEC
Adenovirus
Cryptosporidium spp.
O E OR (95% CI) O E OR (95% CI) O E OR (95% CI) O E OR (95% CI) O E OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
101
72
1.71 (1.32–2.13)

12
42
0.22 (0.12–0.40)

11
29
0.3 (0.16–0.57)

14
41
0.27 (0.15–0.47)

20
40
0.41 (0.25–0.66)
Age group, y
<1 8 3 4.25 (1.72–10.5) 1 1 1.10 (0.13–8.92) 0 1 2 5 0.35 (0.08–1.50) 3 4 0.68 (0.20–2.35)
>1–2 9 5 2.77 (1.15–6.66) 4 3 1.35 (0.43–4.24) 2 1 1.92 (0.38–9.96) 1 4 0.19 (0.02–1.45) 1 3 0.30 (0.04–2.34)
>2– 5 12 9 1.73 (0.76–3.91) 2 7 0.18 (0.04–0.80) 0 1 2 4 0.38 (0.08–1.77) 1 2 0.35 (0.04–3.04)
>5–15 17 18 0.82 (0.45–1.57) 2 7 0.20 (0.04–0.90) 1 3 0.24 (0.03–2.00) 3 4 0.74 (0.18–2.96) 2 3 0.57 (0.11–2.92)
>15–45 45 30 1.95 (1.31–2.90) 3 15 0.14 (0.04–0.46) 4 13 0.22 (0.08–0.63) 3 11 0.21 (0.07–0.72) 10 16 0.53 (0.27–1.05)
>45
10
9
1.09 (0.51–2.33)

0
10
0.89 (0.86–0.93)

4
9
0.34 (0.12–0.99)

3
4
0.59 (0.16–2.11)

3
6
0.43 (0.12–1.49)
Season
Winter 22 12 2.36 (1.39–4.01) 1 9 0.09 (0.01–0.63) 4 4 0.94 (0.32–2.75) 2 10 0.17 (0.04–0.69) 4 14 0.24 (0.08–0.65)
Summer 36 27 1.62 (1.05–2.51) 4 16 0.18 (0.06–0.50) 1 12 0.06 (0.01–0.41) 8 15 0.43 (0.20–0.93) 3 9 0.27 (0.08–0.91)
Monsoon
43
35
1.41 (0.94–2.12)

7
15
0.36 (0.16–0.81)

6
14
0.34 (0.14–0.82)

4
14
0.21 (0.07–0.60)

13
13
0.97 (0.50–1.88)
Rotavirus
Data
Vibrio cholerae

Adenovirus

Cryptosporidium spp.

EAEC

Shigella spp.
O
E
OR (95% CI)
O
E
OR (95% CI)
O
E
OR (95% CI)
O
E
OR (95% CI)
O
E
OR (95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
41
143
0.18 (0.13–0.25)

98
36
5.79 (4.20–7.98)

68
36
2.65 (1.92–3.66)

65
39
2.14 (1.55–2.93)

14
38
0.30 (0.17–0.52)
Age group, y
<1 6 18 0.14 (0.05–0.35) 38 35 1.30 (0.72–2.35) 32 29 1.28 (0.68–2.40) 33 30 1.42 (0.75–2.69) 4 7 0.36 (0.10–1.26)
>1–2 10 17 0.35 (0.15–0.78) 22 17 2.30 (1.01–5.24) 14 11 1.78 (0.69–4.60) 15 15 0.98 (0.44–2.15) 4 13 0.14 (0.05–0.43)
>2–5 6 15 0.23 (0.09–0.58) 7 3 3.50 (1.11–11.01) 2 2 1.07 (0.20–5.75) 9 4 4.00 (1.40–11.5) 0 6
>5–15 5 9 0.38 (0.14–1.05) 4 1 6.40 (1.67–24.39) 1 1 1.20 (0.14–10.15) 1 1 0.62 (0.07–5.00) 0 2
>15–45 6 31 0.13 (0.06–0.30) 20 4 10.81 (5.63–20.78) 12 6 2.38 (1.23–4.62) 5 5 0.91 (0.35–2.33) 3 6 0.48 (0.15–1.58)
>45
8
15
0.41 (0.19–0.91)

7
2
6.27 (2.28–17.19)

7
2
4.13 (1.61–10.62)

2
2
0.89 (0.20–3.94)

3
4
0.63 (0.19–2.12)
Season
Winter 5 47 0.06 (0.02–0.13) 42 23 3.73 (2.20–6.33) 45 32 1.94 (1.25–3.00) 29 21 1.8 (1.06–3.04) 6 21 0.19 (0.08–0.44)
Summer 21 37 0.44 (0.27–0.72) 30 10 5.75 (3.34–9.91) 11 6 2.39 1.14–5.01) 14 8 2.28 (1.18–4.40) 5 11 0.38 (0.15–0.97)
Monsoon 15 42 0.24 (0.14–0.42) 26 6 11.48 (6.04–21.44) 12 6 2.66 (1.33–5.33) 22 10 2.91 (1.71–4.95) 3 7 0.41 (0.13–1.34)

*ETEC, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, O, observed number of cases positive for both pathogens; E, expected number of cases positive for both pathogens; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; EPEC, enteropathogenic E. coli; EAEC, enteroaggregative E. coli. Boldface indicates statistical significance at p<0.05.
†Cell counts too small to calculate OR.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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