Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011

Research

Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands

Judith Spijkerman, Elske J.M. van Gils, Reinier H. Veenhoven, Eelko Hak, F. Yzerman, Arie van der Ende, Alienke J. Wijmenga-Monsuur, Germie P.J.M. van den Dobbelsteen, and Elisabeth A.M. SandersComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands (J. Spijkerman, E.J.M. van Gils, E.A.M. Sanders); Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands (J. Spijkerman, E.J.M. van Gils, R.H. Veenhoven); University Medical Center, Groningen, the Netherlands (E. Hak); Regional Laboratory of Public Health, Haarlem, the Netherlands (E.P.F. Yzerman); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (A. van der Ende); Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (A.J. Wijmenga-Monsuur, G.P.J.M. van den Dobbelsteen)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of children and their parents before and 3 years after implementation of PCV7 vaccination program, the Netherlands*

Characteristic 11-mo-old children
24-mo-old children
Parents
Pre-PCV7, n = 319 Post-PCV7, n = 329† p value‡ Pre-PCV7, n = 321 Post-PCV7, n = 330 p
value‡ Controls, n = 296 Vaccinees, n = 324 p value‡
Male 156 (49) 181 (55) 0.12 155 (48) 187 (57) 0.03 51 (17) 53 (16) 0.76
Mean age (SD) 12.0 mo (0.3) 11.0 mo (0.3) <0.001§ 24.2 mo (0.6) 24.0 mo (0.3) <0.001§ 34.7 y (4.9) 35.1 y (4.4) 0.27§
Presence of siblings <5 y of age 126 (40) 84 (26) <0.001 127 (40) 135 (41) 0.73 NA NA NA
Day care attendance¶ 208 (65) 226 (69) 0.35 224 (70) 233 (71) 0.82 NA NA NA
Passive smoke exposure# 21 (7) 5 (2) 0.001 26 (8) 16 (5) 0.09 NA NA NA
Signs of RTI** 95 (30) 95 (29) 0.80 82 (26) 69 (21) 0.16 NA NA NA
Antimicrobial drug use†† 20 (6) 24 (7) 0.60 10 (3) 23 (7) 0.03 9 (3) 20 (6) 0.07
Period of sampling
Oct–Mar 149 (47) 82 (25) <0.001 156 (48) 86 (26) <0.001 NA NA NA
Apr–Sep 170 (53) 247 (75) NA 166 (52) 244 (74) NA NA NA NA
Active smoking NA NA NA NA NA NA 40 (14) 34 (10) 0.25

*Values are no. (%) except as indicated. PCV7, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; RTI, respiratory tract infection; NA, not applicable.
†Swabs taken just before booster vaccination at 11 mo of age or within 1 week after booster vaccination.
‡By χ2 test or Fisher exact test (2-sided) where appropriate.
§By independent-samples t test.
¶Defined as >4 h/wk with >1 child from a different household.
#Defined as passive tobacco smoke exposure indoors to >1 cigar or cigarette during >5 d/wk.
**Defined by evaluation of parents.
††Defined as use of oral or intravenous antibiotics within 1 mo before sample was taken.

Main Article

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO