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Volume 17, Number 6—June 2011

Research

Wild Birds and Increased Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry, Thailand

Juthatip Keawcharoen, Jan van den Broek, Annemarie Bouma, Thanawat Tiensin, Albert D.M.E Osterhaus, and Hans HeesterbeekComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (J. Keawcharoen, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (J. van den Broek, A. Bouma, T. Tiensin, H. Heesterbeek)

Main Article

Table A1

Overview of wild bird samples collected during 2004–2007, Thailand*

Order Family No. species No. samples No. avian influenza (H5N1)–positive birds Prevalence (95% CI)
Anseriformes
Anatidae
8
300
2
0.007 (0–0.03)
Apodiformes Apodidae 4 92 0

Hemiprocnidae
1
6
0

Bucerotiformes
Bucerotidae
8
71
0

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgidae
1
3
0

Charadriiformes Charadriidae 10 175 3 0.02 (0.01–0.04)
Jacanidae 2 63 1
Laridae 1 117 1
Recurvirostridae 1 208 0
Rostratulidae 1 6 0
Scolopacidae 15 907 0
Sternidae 2 12 0
Turnicidae 2 21 0

Glareolidae
1
10
0

Ciconiiformes Ardeidae 23 2,181 10 0.15 (0.11–0.20)
Ciconiidae 4 3,310 33

Thereskiornithidae
2
19
0

Columbiformes
Columbidae
15
7,692
47
0.16 (0.12–0.21)
Coraciiformes Alcedinidae 1 14 0
Coraciidae 1 3 0
Halcyonidae 5 112 0
Meropidae 3 38 0

Upupidae
1
4
0

Cuculiformes
Cuculidae
4
28
1
0.003 (0–0.01)
Falconiformes
Accipitridae
13
70
1
0.003 (0–0.01)
Galliformes
Phasianidae
25
695
28
0.09 (0.06–0.13)
Gruiformes Gruidae 2 41 1 0.007 (0–0.03)

Rallidae
4
93
1

Passeriformes Alaudidae 1 6 0 0.19 (0.15–0.25)
Artamidae 1 49 0
Campephagidae 1 1 0
Cisticolidae 3 236 0
Corvidae 6 54 10
Dicruridae 3 25 3
Estrildidae 3 363 1
Fringillidae 1 17 0
Hirundinidae 6 952 0
Irenidae 2 4 0
Laniidae 2 4 0
Motacillidae 7 213 0
Muscicapidae 8 162 0
Oriolidae 2 6 0
Passeridae 3 2,997 17
Phylloscopidae 1 1 0
Pittidae 1 2 0
Ploceidae 3 97 0
Pycnonotidae 9 519 3
Rhipiduridae 2 19 0
Sturnidae 11 1,969 23
Sylviidae 7 97 0
Timaliidae 8 25 0

Zosteropidae
2
2
0

Pelecaniformes Pelecanidae 1 6 0

Phalacrocoracidae
2
128
0

Piciformes Megalaimidae 5 16 1 0.003 (0–0.01)

Picidae
2
3
0

Psittaciformes Cacatuidae 7 54 1 0.014 (0–0.03)
Chloropseidae 1 3 0

Psittacidae
26
201
3

Strigiformes Strigidae 2 14 0

Tytonidae
1
1
0

Struthioniformes
Struthionidae
1
150
1
0.003 (0–0.01)
Podicipediformes
Podicipedidae
1
5
0

Casuariiformes
Casuariidae
1
20
0

Total: 20 64 303 24,712 192 (0.67–0.89)

*CI, confidence interval; –, not applicable.

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