Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012

Dispatch

Outbreak of Leptospirosis after Flood, the Philippines, 2009

Al-shere T. Amilasan1, Mugen Ujiie1, Motoi SuzukiComments to Author , Eumelia Salva, Maria Cecilia P. Belo, Nobuo Koizumi, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Shane Marte, Efren M. Dimaano, Jose Benito Villarama, and Koya Ariyoshi
Author affiliations: San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Republic of the Philippines (A.T. Amilasan, E. Salva, M.C.P. Belo, S. Marte, E.M. Dimaano, J.B. Villarama); National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (M. Ujiie); Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (M. Ujiie, M. Suzuki, W.-P. Schmidt, K. Ariyoshi); National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (N. Koizumi); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (K. Yoshimatsu)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of 471 leptospirosis patients, San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines, 2009*

CharacteristicNo. (%) patients total, n = 471No. (%) patients who died, n = 51Univariate analysis
Risk ratio95% CI
Sex
M424 (90)45 (88.2)Reference
F47 (10)6 (11.8)1.20.54–2.67
Age >30 y†235 (49.9)37 (72.6)2.651.47–4.78
Low BMI, <20, n = 398129 (32.4)16 (35.6)1.150.65– 2.04
Clinical features, n = 471
Headache246 (52.2)19 (37.3)0.540.32–0.93
Myalgia361 (76.7)36 (70.6)0.730.42–1.29
Cough83 (17.6)3 (5.6)0.290.09–0.92
Malaise208 (44.2)23 (45.1)1.040.62–1.75
Vomiting272 (57.8)22 (43.1)0.560.33–0.94
Abdominal pain288 (61.2)28 (54.9)0.770.46–1.3
Diarrhea192 (40.8)24 (47.1)1.290.77–2.17
Conjunctival suffusion368 (78.1)41 (80.4)1.150.6–2.21
Jaundice225 (47.8)38 (74.5)3.21.74–5.84
Tea-colored urine156 (33.1)17 (33.3)1.010.58–1.75
Oliguria286 (60.7)27 (52.9)0.730.43–1.22
Anuria26 (5.5)10 (19.6)4.172.37–7.36
Hemoptysis15 (3.2)7 (13.7)4.842.63–8.9
Skin hemorrhage2 (0.4)0NA
Convulsion3 (0.6)1 (2)3.120.62–15.82
Dizziness43 (9.1)1 (2)0.20.03–1.41
Vital status at admission
Hypotension, <100 mm Hg, n = 455177 (38.9)14 (28.6)0.630.35–1.13
Tachycardia, >100 beats/min, n = 46184 (18.2)14 (27.5)1.70.96–3.0
Tachypnea, >20 breaths/min, n = 460253 (55)34 (66.7)1.640.94–2.84
Initial laboratory findings
Neutrophilia, >12 x 109 cells/L, n = 430171 (39.8)18 (58.1)2.11.05–4.17
Thrombocytopenia, <50 x 103 cells/L, n = 42650 (11.7)10 (33.3)3.761.87–7.57
AST >100 IU/L, n = 22044 (20)2 (28.6)1.60.32–8.0
ALT >100 IU/L, n = 22034 (15.5)2 (28.6)2.20.44–10.9
BUN >80 mg/dL, n = 385185 (48.1)12 (75)3.241.06–9.89
Cr >3.0 mg/dL, n = 413183 (44.3)13 (72.2)3.271.19–9.01

*BMI, body mass index; NA, not applicable; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine transaminase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine.
†Mean ± SD 31.3 ± 13.1 for total patients, 39.5 ± 13.6 for patients who died; risk ratio (95% CI) 1.04 (1.02–1.06).

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO