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Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012

Dispatch

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Bihar, India

Epco Hasker1Comments to Author , Shri Prakash Singh1, Paritosh Malaviya, Albert Picado, Kamlesh Gidwani, Rudra Pratap Singh, Joris Menten, Marleen Boelaert, and Shyam Sundar
Author affiliations: Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (E. Hasker, A. Picado, J. Menten, M. Boelaert); and Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India (S.P. Singh, P. Malaviya, K. Gidwani, R.P. Singh, S. Sundar)

Main Article

Table

Factors associated with visceral leishmaniasis, Bihar State, India, 2008–2010

Factor No. (%) participants
Odds ratio*
Total, N = 81,210 Case-patients, n = 207
Demographic characteristic

Mushahar caste

1,980 (2.4) 32 (15.5) 2.9 (1.3–6.8)

Age group, y

0–4

12,787 (15.8) 20 (9.7) Referent

5–14

21,020 (25.9) 79 (38.2) 2.5 (1.5–4.0)

15–24

14,282 (17.6) 33 (15.9) 1.7 (1.0–3.0)

25–34

10,993 (13.5) 31 (15.0) 2.0 (1.1–3.5)

35–44

8,462 (10.4) 23 (11.1) 1.9 (1.1–3.6)

>45

13,666 (16.8) 21 (10.1) 1.2 (0.6–2.2)
Socioeconomic status, by assets index level

Level 1, poorest

16,515 (20.3) 70 (33.8) Referent

Level 2

16,094 (19.8) 58 (28.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)

Level 3

16,124 (19.8) 31 (15.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.1)

Level 4

16,256 (20.0) 35 (16.9) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)

Level 5

16,221 (20.0) 13 (6.3) 0.5 (0.3–1.0)
Other

Ownership of goats

25,703 (31.7) 86 (41.6) 1.4 (1.0–1.8)

Bamboo tree at <10 m

31,554 (38.9) 86 (41.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.0)
Type of walls

Brick, plastered

19,169 (23.6) 15 (7.3) Referent

Brick, unplastered

35,401 (43.6) 96 (46.4) 1.8 (1.0– 3.3)

Thatched

26,640 (32.8) 96 (46.4) 2.5 (1.3– 4.6)

*Based on multivariate model with tolla of residence as random effect.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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