Autochthonous and Dormant Cryptococcus gattii Infections in Europe
Ferry Hagen , M. Francisca Colom, Daniëlle Swinne, Kathrin Tintelnot, Roberta Iatta, Maria Teresa Montagna, Josep M. Torres-Rodriguez, Massimo Cogliati, Aristea Velegraki, Arjan Burggraaf, Alwin Kamermans, Johanna M. Sweere, Jacques F. Meis, Corné H.W. Klaassen, and Teun Boekhout
Author affiliations: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands (F. Hagen, A. Burggraaf, A. Kamermans, J.M. Sweere, T. Boekhout); University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (F. Hagen, T Boekhout); Universidad Miguel Hernàndez, Alicante, Spain (M.F. Colom); Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium (D. Swinne); Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany (K. Tintelnot); Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy (R. Iatta, M.T. Montagna); Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (J.M. Torres-Rodriguez); Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy (M. Cogliati); University of Athens, Athens, Greece (A. Velegraki); University College Utrecht, Utrecht (J.M. Sweere); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (J.F. Meis); and Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen (J.F. Meis, C.H.W. Klaassen)
Figure. . . Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on 10-loci multilocus sequence type data of Cryptococcus gattii isolates (condensed). Phylogenetic relatedness of 150 STs representing the 291 C. gattii isolates, calculated by using the maximum-likelihood algorithm and rooted by using the 2 C. neoformans reference strains CBS8710 (genotype AFLP1/VNI) and CBS10513 (genotype AFLP2/VNIV). Closely related sequence types were collapsed into 1 branch shown by multiple sequence type numbers. Boldface indicates sequence types that are within a shaded area belong to a specified C. gattii cluster; B, M, PNW, and VIO represent clusters from Brazil; Mediterranean Europe; the US Pacific Northwest outbreak; and the Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, outbreak, respectively. AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; ST, sequence type. Scale bar indicates number of substitutions per site. See for a detailed phylogenetic analysis.
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