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Volume 18, Number 10—October 2012


Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

Erik A. Karlsson, Gregory A. Engel, M.M. Feeroz, Sorn San, Aida Rompis, Benjamin P. Y.-H. Lee, Eric Shaw, Gunwha Oh, Michael A. Schillaci, Richard Grant, John Heidrich, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, and Lisa Jones-EngelComments to Author 
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (E.A. Karlsson, S. Schultz-Cherry); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA (G.A. Engel, G. Oh, L. Jones-Engel); Swedish Cherry Hill Family Medicine, Seattle (G.A. Engel); Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Bangladesh (M.M. Feeroz); National Veterinary Research Institute, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (S. San); University of Udayana, Bali, Indonesia (A. Rompis); Nature Parks, Singapore (B.P.Y.-H. Lee); Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society, Gibraltar (E. Shaw); University of Toronto Scarborough, Ontario, Canada (M.A. Schillaci); and Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratory, Phnom Penh (R. Grant, J. Heidrich)

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Table 2

Seroprevalence of influenza A virus subtypes in monkeys with nucleocapsid protein–positive ELISAs, by location*

Virus strain Virus subtype
(H5 clade) Years used in vaccine No. tested/no. positive
Singapore Indonesia
Bangladesh Cambodia
Java Sulawesi
A/Beijing/262/1995 H1N1 1999–2000 0/6 2/4 1/6† NSA NSA
A/Sydney/5/1997 H3N2 1999–2000 2/6‡ 0/4 1/6§ NSA NSA
A/New Caledonia/20/1999 H1N1 2000–2007 0/6 0/4 1/6† 0/4 0/14
A/Panama/2007/1999 H3N2 2000–2004 2/6‡ 0/4 1/6§ 0/4 NSA
A/California/07/2004 H3N2 2005–2006 NSA NSA NSA 0/4 0/14
A/Wisconsin/67/2005 H3N2 2006–2008 NSA NSA NSA 0/4 0/14
A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1 2008–2010 NSA NSA NSA 1/4 0/14
A/Brisbane/10/2007 H3N2 2008–2010 NSA NSA NSA 0/4 0/14
A/California/04/2009 H1N1 2010–present NSA NSA NSA 0/4 0/14
A/Perth/16/2009 H3N2 2010–present NSA NSA NSA 0/4 0/14
A/chicken/Bangladesh/5473/2010 H9 G1 NA NSA NSA NSA 2/4 NSA
A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5 (1) NA NSA NSA NSA NSA 0/14
A/Cambodia/R0H05050/2007 H5 (1) NA NSA NSA NSA NSA 0/14
A/duck/Hunan/795/2002 H5 (2.1) NA NSA NSA NSA 0/4 NSA
A/BHG/Qinghai/01/2005 H5 (2.2.2) NA NSA NSA NSA 0/4 NSA
A/JWE/Hong Kong/1038/2006 H5 ( NA NSA NSA NSA 0/4 NSA
A/duck/Laos/3295/2006 H5 ( NA NSA NSA NSA 0/4 NSA

*Samples were only tested for relevant strains based on the collection location, year of collection, and estimated age of the monkey. Monkeys from Indonesia were not tested for influenza subtype H5N1 viruses because samples were collected in 2001 and 2002 and subtype H5N1 viruses were first reported in poultry from Indonesia in February 2004. Samples with a hemagglutination inhibition value ≥1:10 were considered positive. NSA, no samples available for testing; NA, not applicable for use in vaccine; BHG, bar-headed goose; JWE, Japanese white-eye.
†Individual monkey gave positive results for both strains.
‡Individual monkeys gave positive results for both strains.
§Individual monkey gave positive results for both strains.

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