Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae
Nicole J. Cohen , Douglas D. Slaten, Nina Marano, Jordan W. Tappero, Michael Wellman, Ryan J. Albert, Vincent R. Hill, David Espey, Thomas Handzel, Ariel Henry, and Robert V. Tauxe
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (N.J. Cohen, D.D. Slaten, N. Marano, J.W. Tappero, M. Wellman, V.R. Hill, D. Espey, T. Handzel, R.V. Tauxe); US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA (R.J. Albert); and Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (A. Henry)
Figure. . . Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast exchange. To exchange ballast >200 nautical miles from shore in water 200 m deep, ships must travel 280 nautical miles northeast of Haiti (A) or to the Gulf of Mexico (B). To exchange ballast at the minimum 50 nautical miles from shore in water >200 m deep, ships must travel >90 nautical miles northeast (C) or 50 nautical miles south (D) of Haiti or conduct the exchange in an area <45 nautical miles wide approximately equidistant from Haiti, Cuba, and Jamaica (E). Light blue shading indicates distance from land is <50 nautical miles and/or seawater depth is <200 m. Medium blue shading indicates distance from land is >50 nautical miles but <200 nautical miles, and seawater depth is >200 m. Dark blue shading indicates distance from land is >200 nautical miles and seawater depth is >200 m.
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