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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012

Research

Livestock Density as Risk Factor for Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the Netherlands

Beth J. FeingoldComments to Author , Ellen K. Silbergeld, Frank C. Curriero, Brigite A.G.L. van Cleef, Max E.O.C. Heck, and Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans
Author affiliations: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (B.J. Feingold, E.K. Silbergeld, F.C. Curriero); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, M.E.O.C. Heck); and Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands; and VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, J.A.J.W. Kluytmans)

Main Article

Table 4

Results of multivariate logistic regression for LA-MRSA carriage compared with those for T-MRSA carriage, the Netherlands, 2003–2005*

Variable Model 1: individual level
Model 2: model 1 + pig density
Model 3: model 1 + cow density
Model 4: model 1 + veal calf density
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Individual level

Contact with pigs

8.63 (1.23–60.40) 0.030 6.41 (0.77–53.35) 0.086 6.84 (0.86–54.49) 0.069 9.41 (1.24–71.26) 0.030

Contact with cows

7.37 (0.57–94.68) 0.125 8.39 (0.55–129.18) 0.127 5.10 (0.39–65.87) 0.212 6.18 (0.53–71.83) 0.146

Rural

5.63 (1.02–31.17) 0.048 4.14 (0.64–26.65) 0.135 5.55 (0.89–34.56) 0.066 4.94 (0.802–30.41) 0.085
Probable source of MRSA

Foreign vs.
health care

11.61 (1.04–129.63) 0.046 8.53 (0.72–100.45) 0.088 8.71 (0.74–102.73) 0.086 14.36 (1.06–193.53) 0.045

Unknown vs.
health care

9.56 (1.76–51.93) 0.009 11.47 (2.01–65.64) 0.006 14.03 (2.25–87.47) 0.005 13.31 (2.02–87.75) 0.007

Other vs. health
care

4.30 (0.55–33.56) 0.164 4.12 (0.54–31.32) 0.032 2.91 (0.36–23.77) 0.319 4.11 (0.51–33.00) 0.184
Municipality level

Log (pig density)

1.37 (1.01–1.87) <0.041

Log (cow density)

2.28 (1.17–4.45) 0.016

Log (veal calf
density)

1.37 (1.08–1.72) 0.009
Regression diagnostics
AIC 84.76 79.98 79.14 77.90

Hosmer-
Lemeshow†

2.52 0.6407 5.48 0.7050 7.52 <0.4817 6.09 <0.6374

Likelihood ratio
test

NA 0.0092 <0.0058 <0.0029

*MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; LA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA; T-MRSA, typeable MRSA; OR, odds ratio; AIC, Akaike information criteria; NA, not applicable.
†Hosmer-Lemeshow, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test.

Main Article

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