Figure 1. Ecuador showing elevation (red shading), provinces (thin gray lines and boldface), country border (thick gray line), and 15 cities/valleys (black dots). Approximate location of the historic railway between Guayaquil and Alausí is indicated by black railroad tracks, and increasing altitude is indicated by darker shades of red. Map was constructed by using ArcGIS version 10 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA).
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