Figure 3. Probable extent of highland valley malaria incidence (shaded areas) during the early 1940s in Ecuador. Stars indicate approximate location of original towns to which malaria was reported as endemic, judged by the presence of the historical town square in Google Earth satellite imagery (Google, 2010). Shading was determined by the valley bottom with an affected town up to an altitude of 2,500 m. Inset: Approximate location of region in Ecuador. Data were obtained from Levi Castillo (17), Montalvan (18), and Levi Castillo (21).