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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012

Dispatch

Influenza A and B Virus Attachment to Respiratory Tract in Marine Mammals

Antonio J. RamisComments to Author , Debby van Riel, Marco W.G van de Bildt, Albert Osterhaus, and Thijs Kuiken
Author affiliations: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona Spain (A.J Ramis); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (D. van Riel, M.W.G van de Bildt, A. Osterhaus, T. Kuiken)

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Table

Attachment of mammal and human avian influenza viruses to respiratory tracts of 4 marine mammals*

Host (species) and virus strain Level and cell tropism of virus attachment
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchiole
Alveolus
Score Predominant cell type Score Predominant cell type Score Predominant cell type Score Predominant cell type
Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)
Seal (H4N5) + Cil + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Seal (H7N7) + Cil + Cil† ± Cil ± ND
Mallard (H4N5) + Cil + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Mallard (H7N7) + Cil + Cil† ± Cil ± ND
Human (H1N1) ± Cil ± ND
Human (H3N2) ± Cil ± ND
Human B + Cil + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Seal B ± Cil ± Cil† ± Cil ± ND
Gray seal (Halichoerus grypus)
Seal (H4N5) + Cil† + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Seal (H7N7) + Cil† + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Mallard (H4N5) + Cil† + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Mallard (H7N7) + Cil† + Cil† + Cil ± ND
Human (H1N1)
Human (H3N2)
Human B + Cil† + Cil† + Cil + I
Seal B ± Cil† ± Cil† ± Cil ± ND
Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)
Seal (H4N5) ± Cil† ++ Cil ++ Cil ± ND
Seal (H7N7) ± Cil ± ND
Mallard (H4N5) ± Cil ± ND
Mallard (H7N7) ± Cil ± ND
Human (H1N1) ± Cil + Cil ++ I and II
Human (H3N2) ± Cil ++ Cil ++ I and II
Human B ± Cil + I
Seal B ± Cil + I
Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
Seal (H4N5) ± Cil + Cil ++ I and II
Seal (H7N7) ± Cil ± Cil ± ND
Mallard (H4N5) ± Cil + Cil ++ I and II
Mallard (H7N7) ± Cil† ± Cil ± Cil ± ND
Human (H1N1) ± Cil† ± Cil + Cil + I
Human (H3N2) ± Cil† ± Cil ++ Cil ++ I and II
Human B ± Cil + I
Seal B + Cil + I

*Mean abundance of cells to which virus attached was scored as follows:+, moderate (10%–50% cells positive); ±, scarce (<10% cells positive); –, negative (no attachment); ++, abundant (>50% cells positive). Cil, ciliated epithelial cell; ND, not determined; I, type I pneumocytes; II, type II pneumocytes.
†Virus attachment to submucosal glands.

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