Diversity of Parvovirus 4–like Viruses in Humans, Chimpanzees, and Monkeys in Hunter–Prey Relationships
Cornelia Adlhoch1, Marco Kaiser1 , Anna Loewa, Markus Ulrich, Christian Forbrig, Edgard V. Adjogoua, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Wolfram Rietschel, Christophe Boesch, Heinz Ellerbrok, Bradley S. Schneider, and Fabian H. Leendertz
Author affiliations: Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany (C. Adlhoch, A. Loewa, M. Ulrich, C. Forbrig, H. Ellerbrok, F.H. Leendertz); GenExpress GmbH, Berlin (M. Kaiser); Institut Pasteur Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (E.V. Adjogoua, C. Akoua-Koffi, E. Couacy-Hymann); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway (S.A.J. Leendertz); Botanical Zoological Garden, Stuttgart, Germany (W. Rietschel); Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany (C. Boesch); Global Viral Forecasting, San Francisco, California, USA (B.S. Schneider)
Figure. . . Phylogenetic tree of near full-length and partial sequences (open reading frame 2) of parvovirus 4 (PARV4), PARV4-like viruses, and Hong Kong virus (HoV) created by using MEGA5.05 (www.megasoftware.net) with the maximum likelihood-method (GTR+G+I) and bootstrap analysis of 1,000 resamplings. Sequence origin was indicated as follows: circle, from humans; square, from chimpanzees; triangle, from red colobus monkeys; and tetragon, from black-and-white colobus monkeys. New sequences from Côte d’Ivoire are shown with filled symbols. P.t.t., Pan troglodytes troglodytes; P.t.v., Pan troglodytes verus; P. badius, Piliocolobus badius; C. polykomos, Colobus polykomos; BHoV, bovine HoV; PHoV, porcine HoV; OHoV, ovine HoV; Eh-BtPV-1, Eidolon helvum parvovirus 1; Gt, genotype of human PARV4. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.