Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012
Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment
|Source of Infection||No. cases||Mean incubation period, y (range)||Clinical signs†|
|Dura mater graft||228||12 (1.3–30)||Cerebellar, visual, dementia|
|Neurosurgical instruments||4||1.4 (1–2.3)||Visual, dementia, cerebellar|
|Stereotactic EEG needles||2||1.3, 1.7||Dementia, cerebellar|
|Corneal transplant||2||1.5, 27||Dementia, cerebellar|
|Growth hormone||226||17 (5–42)‡||Cerebellar|
|Packed red blood cells§||3||6.5, 7.8, 8.3||Psychiatric, sensory, dementia, cerebellar|
†In order of decreasing frequency.
‡Averages and ranges were 13 (5–24) y in France; 20 (7–39) y in the United Kingdom; and 22 (10–42) y in the United States.
§An additional asymptomatic but infected red-cell recipient died of an unrelated illness; another asymptomatic infected hemophilia patient who had been exposed to potentially contaminated factor VIII also died of an unrelated illness (neither is included in the table).