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Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012

Research

Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases

Michael EdelsteinComments to Author , David L. Heymann, Johan Giesecke, and Julius Weinberg

Author affiliations: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (M. Edelstein, D.L. Heymann); Chatham House, London (D.L. Heymann); European Centre for Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden (J. Giesecke); and Kingston University, London (J. Weinberg)

Main Article

Table 4

Association between concordance and pathogen type, by WHO region and event type*

Characteristic No. events No. (%) concordant events Crude OR (95% CI) p value†
Type of pathogen
Bacterium 89 27 (69.2) 1
Virus 39 46(51.7) 2.10 (0.95–4.67) 0.07
Rickettsia 12 6 (50.0) 0.93 (0.28–3.12) 0.91
Protozoan 20 7 (35.0) 0.50 (0.18–1.38) 0.18
Other‡ 15 7 (46.7) 0.82 (0.27–2.45) 0.72
WHO region
AMRO 77 40 (51.9) 1
EURO 49 23 (46.9) 0.82 (0.40–1.68) 0.58
EMRO 7 4 (57.14) 1.23 (0.26–5.88) 0.79
SEARO 10 5 (50.0) 0.92 (0.25–3.45) 0.91
WPRO 24 15 (62.0) 1.54 (0.60–3.94) 0.37
AFRO 8 6 (75.0) 2.78 (0.53–14.6) 0.23
Type of event
New pathogen 70 31 (44.3) 1
Increased incidence 44 27 (61.4) 2.00 (0.93–4.31) 0.08
Antimicrobial drug resistance 54 32 (59.3) 1.83 (0.89–3.75) 0.10
New clinical manifestation 7 3 (42.9) 0.94 (0.20–4.53) 0.94

*WHO, World Health Organization; OR, odds ratio; AMRO, Americas; EURO, Europe; EMRO, Eastern Mediterranean; SEARO, Southeast Asia; WPRO, Western Pacific; AFRO, Africa.
†By Wald test.
‡Helminth, prion, or fungus.

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