Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012
Volume 18, Number 7—July 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 6.15 MB - 191 pages]
World Health Organization Perspective on Implementation of International Health Regulations
PDF Version [PDF - 195 KB - 6 pages]M. HardimanView Summary
The regulations have substantially helped prevent and control the international spread of diseases, but their full potential has yet to be realized.
Medscape CME Activity
Assessment of Public Health Events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]K. S. Kohl et al.View Summary
People and goods travel rapidly around the world, and so do infectious organisms. Sometimes a disease has already become widespread before it is detected and reported, which makes control efforts much more difficult. In response to this threat, the World Health Assembly enacted International Health Regulations that require participating countries to report public health events of international concern to the World Health Organization within 72 hours of detection. These health regulations went into effect in 2007 for all WHO Member States including the United States. By December 2011, 24 events reported by the United States were posted on a secure WHO web site, 12 of which were associated with influenza. Others reported were salmonellosis outbreaks, botulism, E. coli infections, Guillain-Barré syndrome, contaminated heparin, Lassa fever, an oil spill, and typhoid fever. International Health Regulations have improved global connectivity through rapid information exchange and increased awareness of threatening situations.
International Health Regulations—What Gets Measured Gets Done
PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 4 pages]K. Ijaz et al.View Summary
Focus on goals and metrics for 4 core capacities illustrates 1 approach to implementing IHR.
Lessons Learned from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic Response in Thailand
PDF Version [PDF - 312 KB - 7 pages]K. Ungchusak et al.View Summary
The strengths and weaknesses of this response can inform planning for pandemics and other prolonged public health emergencies.
Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012
PDF Version [PDF - 449 KB - 7 pages]A. Elbers et al.View Summary
Seroprevalence was highest in the eastern part of the country, bordering Germany, where the virus was first identified.
Predicting Risk for Death from MRSA Bacteremia
PDF Version [PDF - 272 KB - 9 pages]M. Pastagia et al.View Summary
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the bloodstream is often fatal. Vancomycin is the most frequently prescribed drug for treatment of MRSA infections with demonstrated efficacy. Recently, however, some MRSA infections have not been responding to vancomycin, even those caused by strains considered susceptible. To provide optimal treatment and avoid vancomycin resistance, therapy should be tailored, especially for patients at highest risk for death. But who are these patients? A study that looked back at medical records and 699 frozen isolates found that risk for death from MRSA infection was highest among certain populations, including the elderly, nursing home residents, patients with severe sepsis, and patients with liver or kidney disease. Risk for death was not affected by the type of MRSA strain (vancomycin susceptible, heteroresistant, or intermediate resistant). Risk was lower among those who had consulted an infectious disease specialist. Thus, when choosing treatment for patients with MRSA infection, it is crucial to look at patient risk factors, not just MRSA strain type. For those at high risk, consultation with an infectious disease specialist is recommended.
Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 389 KB - 8 pages]S. Roy et al.View Summary
Isolates contained fiber genes similar to those of adenovirus strains that cause infectious diarrhea in humans.
Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence
PDF Version [PDF - 479 KB - 7 pages]H. Chang et al.View Summary
Mutations can occur erratically and accompany tropism changes, resulting in unpredictable new diseases.
Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam
PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 5 pages]L. Poulsen et al.View Summary
Transmission routes and reservoirs need to be elucidated.
Loss of Household Protection from Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes, Benin
PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 6 pages]A. Asidi et al.View Summary
Restoring protection requires innovation combining pyrethroids and novel insecticides.
Retrospective Evaluation of Control Measures for Contacts of Patient with Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever
PDF Version [PDF - 198 KB - 8 pages]A. Timen et al.View Summary
Measures had substantial effects on contacts and household members.
Validity of International Health Regulations in Reporting Emerging Infectious Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 143 KB - 6 pages]M. Edelstein et al.View Summary
Use of more prescriptive criteria and training of persons responsible for reporting could improve results.
Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005)
PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]R. Katz et al.View Summary
Costs can be estimated by identifying functional pathways toward achieving all 8 core capacities and global indicators.
Seroconversion to Seasonal Influenza Viruses after A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Quebec, Canada
PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]M. Baz et al.
Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador
PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]V. H. Leyva-Grado et al.
Multiple Introductions of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Laos, 2009–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 446 KB - 5 pages]S. Sonnberg et al.
Neonatal Granulicatella elegans Bacteremia, London, UK
PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 3 pages]H. Yang et al.
Electronic Event–based Surveillance for Monitoring Dengue, Latin America
PDF Version [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]A. G. Hoen et al.View Summary
Dengue, a potentially fatal disease, is spreading around the world. An estimated 2.5 billion people in tropical and subtropical regions are at risk. Early detection of outbreaks is crucial to prevention and control of dengue virus and other viruses. Case reporting may often take weeks or months. Therefore, researchers explored whether electronic sources of real-time information (such as Internet news outlets, health expert mailing lists, social media sites, and queries to online search engines) might be faster, and they were. Although information from unofficial sources should be interpreted with caution, when used in conjunction with traditional case reporting, real-time electronic surveillance can help public health authorities allocate resources in time to avert full-blown epidemics.
Changing Socioeconomic Indicators of Human Plague, New Mexico, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 922 KB - 4 pages]A. M. Schotthoefer et al.View Summary
Plague, a rare but severe disease spread by rodents and fleas, has been traditionally associated with poor, unsanitary living conditions. To test this association, researchers in New Mexico used census data to determine the geographic and socioeconomic status of plague patients. Although they confirmed that most cases occurred in areas where the habitat supports rodents and fleas, they also found a surprising shift to more middle- to upper-class neighborhoods. In the 1980s, most cases occurred where housing conditions were poor. By the 2000s, cases were occurring in the affluent Santa Fe and Albuquerque regions. Although the cause of this shift is unknown, possibilities include relocation of affluent families to plague-prone areas or improved socioeconomic conditions among those already living in plague-prone areas.
Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient
PDF Version [PDF - 432 KB - 4 pages]E. G. Meissner et al.
Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009
PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 4 pages]M. Staff et al.
Probable Transmission of Coxsackie B3 Virus from Human to Chimpanzee, Denmark
PDF Version [PDF - 281 KB - 3 pages]S. C. Nielsen et al.
Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during Pertussis Outbreak, Japan
PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 4 pages]H. Kamiya et al.
Trap-Vaccinate-Release Program to Control Raccoon Rabies, New York, USA
PDF Version [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]S. Slavinski et al.
Potential International Spread of Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis
PDF Version [PDF - 221 KB - 4 pages]I. Rodríguez et al.
Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae Genotypes with Identical Pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]C. Teh et al.
Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010
PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 4 pages]N. Sarıgüzel et al.
Timeliness of Nongovernmental versus Governmental Global Outbreak Communications
PDF Version [PDF - 217 KB - 4 pages]L. Mondor et al.
Role of Birds in Dispersal of Etiologic Agents of Tick-borne Zoonoses, Spain, 2009
PDF Version [PDF - 294 KB - 4 pages]A. M. Palomar et al.
Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh
PDF Version [PDF - 315 KB - 4 pages]S. L. Smits et al.
Medscape CME Activity
Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H7N2) Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Adult, New York, USA, 2003
PDF Version [PDF - 185 KB - 4 pages]B. Ostrowsky et al.
Tracking the Vector of Onchocerca lupi in a Rural Area of Greece
PDF Version [PDF - 384 KB - 5 pages]D. Otranto et al.
Treatment Duration for Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, United States
PDF Version [PDF - 115 KB - 2 pages]C. A. Winston and K. Mitruka
Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 123 KB - 3 pages]E. W. Lankau et al.
Culicoids as Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus
PDF Version [PDF - 127 KB - 3 pages]L. Rasmussen et al.
Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Ghana, West Africa
PDF Version [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]D. Hayman et al.
Outbreak-associated Novel Duck Reovirus, China, 2011
PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 3 pages]Z. Chen et al.
Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010–2011
PDF Version [PDF - 116 KB - 4 pages]L. von Seidlein and J. L. Deen
Buruli Ulcer in Gabon, 2001–2010
PDF Version [PDF - 103 KB - 2 pages]U. Ngoa et al.
Books and Media
Infectious Disease: A Geographic Guide and Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases
PDF Version [PDF - 83 KB - 2 pages]B. P. Petruccelli
The Origins of AIDS
PDF Version [PDF - 70 KB - 1 page]K. M. De Cock
Eradication: Ridding the World of Diseases Forever?
PDF Version [PDF - 75 KB - 2 pages]J. P. Koplan
About the Cover
- Page created: May 24, 2013
- Page last updated: May 24, 2013
- Page last reviewed: May 24, 2013
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID)
Office of the Director (OD)