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Volume 19, Number 1—January 2013

Research

Seroepidemiologic Effects of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore

James M. TrauerComments to Author , Don Bandaranayake, Robert Booy, Mark I. Chen, Michelle Cretikos, Gary K. Dowse, Dominic E. Dwyer, Michael E. Greenberg, Q. Sue Huang, Gulam Khandaker, Jen Kok, Karen L. Laurie, Vernon J. Lee, Jodie McVernon, Scott Walter, Peter G. Markey, and for the Australia, New Zealand and Singapore Pandemic Serosurveillance Study Group
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Melbourne Sleep Disorders Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (J.M. Trauer); Environmental Science and Research, Wallaceville, New Zealand (D. Bandaranayake, Q.S. Huang); National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia (R. Booy, G. Khandaker); National University Health System, Singapore (M.I. Chen); University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (M. Cretikos); Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Shenton Park, Western Australia, Australia (G.K. Dowse); Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead (D.E. Dwyer, J. Kok); CSL Limited, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (M.E. Greenberg); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research in Influenza, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.L. Laurie); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (V.J. Lee); Melbourne School of Population Health, Parkville (J. McVernon); Centre for Epidemiology and Research, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (S. Walter; Centre for Disease Control, Tiwi, Northern Territory, Australia (P.G. Markey)

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of collections included in database to estimate population attach rates of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the Southern Hemisphere, winter 2009*

Code (ref. no.) Study design No. assays by redefined phase Population Age range, y† Study exclusions Enrollment Region Spec-imen type Testing lab-oratory RBC species Control serum specimen Monovalent pandemic vaccine effect Notes and exclusions for analysis
A (16) Pre cross-section 524 pre Outpatients 1–99 None Opportunistic from stored specimens NZ Serum ESR Guinea pig Human and ferret Not applicable None
B (16) Post cross-section 1,147 post Primary care patients 1–89 None Active recruitment of registered GP patients NZ Serum ESR Guinea pig Human and ferret Collection prior to vaccination program None
C (16) Post cross-section 532 post Health care workers‡ 21–109 None Active recruitment of hospital and clinic staff NZ Serum ESR Guinea pig Human and ferret Collection prior to vaccination program None
D (7) Pre cross-section 152 pre Residents of aged-care facilities‡ 59–100 None Outbreak investigations of non-H1N1 viruses NSW Serum CIDMLS Human, O negative Human Not applicable None
E (17)
Prospective cohort (pre and post collections) 788 pre Community residents 21–74 None Sub-cohort of existing cohort collection Singapore Serum WHO-CC Turkey Human and ferret Collection prior to vaccination program None
671 intra
F (17)
689 post
Prospective cohort (pre and post collections)
1 pre Healthcare workers‡
20–67
None
Email and word of mouth staff recruitment at hospital
Singapore
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
None
1,138 intra
391 post
G (17)
Prospective cohort (pre and post collections)
300 intra Staff and residents of long-term care facilities‡
19–109
None
Active recruitment by invitation
Singapore
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
None
250 post
H (17)
Prospective cohort (pre and post collections)
1,915 intra Military personnel‡
18–62
None
Active recruitment by invitation
Singapore
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
None
637 post
I (8)
Pre and post cross-sections
447 pre Community residents
0–19
Respiratory infection indication for testing
Opportunistic from pathology laboratory
WA
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
Gender unavailable
221 intra
229 post
J (8)
Pre and post cross-sections
201 pre Pregnant women‡
21–45
Respiratory infection indication for testing
Opportunistic from pathology laboratory
WA
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
None
170 intra
116 post
K (9)
Pre and post- cross-sections
474 pre Outpatients
0–100
Influenza serologic testing
Opportunistic from pathology laboratories
NSW
Serum or lithium-heparin plasma
CIDMLS
Human, O negative
Human
Collection prior to vaccination program
Gender unavailable for 164 pre-pandemic assays
750 intra
497 post
L (10) RCT of pandemic vaccine (pre-vaccine collection) 166 intra Healthy adults . Pregnancy Active recruitment of volunteers Adelaide Serum Focus Turkey Human Collection prior to vaccination program Postvaccinationassays excluded
M (11)
Postpandemic cross-section with retrospective assessment of seroconversion
125 intra Persons infected with HIV‡
19–77
None
Opportunistic testing of specimens submitted for HIV load monitoring
NSW
Plasma
CIDMLS
Human
O-negative
Human
Collection prior to vaccination program
Retrospective assays excluded
74 post
N (12)
Pre and post cross-sections
404 pre Blood donors
16–78
None
Opportunistic collection from donated blood units
Cairns, Townsville, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Perth, Sydney
Plasma
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Vaccination status checked if titer raised
None
92 intra
779 post
O (13)
RCT of pandemic vaccine (pre-vaccine collection)
290 intra Community volunteers
0–8
Gestational age <36 wk, investigational vaccine
Active recruitment through tertiary hospitals
Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Serum
Focus
Turkey
Human
Collection prior to vaccination program
Postvaccination assays excluded
73 post
P (14)
Pre and post cross-sections
443 pre Outpatients
0–97
None
Opportunistic from pathology laboratory
NT
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Collection prior to vaccination program
None
2 intra
1,689 post
Q (unpub.) Post cross-sections 65 post Hemo-dialysis patients‡ 43–88 None Prevaccination blood sample NSW Serum CIDMLS Human, O negative Human Collection prior to individual vaccination None
R (unpub.)
RCT of interferon (pre- and postintervention collections)
64 pre Community volunteers
20–74
Chronic respiratory conditions
Active recruitment (email and newspaper)
Perth
Serum
WHO-CC
Turkey
Human and ferret
Patients receiving vaccine excluded
Postintervention assays in active treatment arm excluded
102 intra
87 post
S (unpub.) Pre and post cross-sections 944 pre Community residents 0–18 None National pediatric serosurveillance studies Singapore Serum WHO-CC Turkey Human and ferret Low vaccine uptake (≈1%–2%) in population at time of collection (19) Postvaccine assays excluded
32 intra
460 post

*RBC, red blood cells; pre, prepandemic phase; intra, intrapandemic phase; post, postpandemic phase; ESR, World Health Organization National Influenza Centre, Environmental Science and Research, New Zealand; CIDMLS, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia; WHO-CC, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, North Melbourne, Australia; Focus = Focus Diagnostics, California, USA; RCT, randomized controlled trial; GP, general practitioner; NZ, New Zealand, NSW, New South Wales; WA, Western Australia; NT, Northern Territory.
†Age range for specimens included in pre or postpandemic phases.
‡Defined as risk groups for analysis.

Main Article

1A list of the group’s members can be found at the end of this article.

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