Microevolution of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Isolated from Humans, Egypt, 2007–2011
Mary Younan1, Mee Kian Poh1, Emad Elassal1, Todd Davis, Pierre Rivailler, Amanda L. Balish, Natosha Simpson, Joyce Jones, Varough Deyde, Rosette Loughlin, Ije Perry, Larisa Gubareva, Maha A. ElBadry, Shaun Truelove, Anne M. Gaynor, Emad Mohareb, Magdy Amin, Claire Cornelius, Guillermo Pimentel, Kenneth Earhart, Amel Naguib, Ahmed S. Abdelghani, Samir Refaey, Alexander I. Klimov, Ruben O. Donis , and Amr Kandeel
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: US Naval Medical Research Unit No.3, Cairo, Egypt (M. Younan, E. Elassal, M.A. ElBadry, S. Truelove, A.M. Gaynor, E. Mohareb, C. Cornelius, G. Pimentel, K. Earhart); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.K. Poh, T. Davis, P. Rivailler, A.L. Balish, N. Simpson, J. Jones, V. Deyde, R. Loughlin, I. Perry, L. Gubareva, A.I. Klimov, R.O. Donis); Cairo University, Cairo (M. Amin); Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo (A. Naguib, A.S. Abdelghani, S. Refaey, A. Kandeel)
Figure 1. . . Phylogenetic tree of the influenza A(H5) virus hemagglutinin genes, clade 2.2.1, generated by neighbor-joining analysis. Subgroups of clade 2.2.1 are indicated on the right. Bootstrap values (>79) generated from 1,000 neighbor-joining replicates are shown above branches, and Bayesian posterior probabilities are shown below the branches at relevant nodes. Scale bar represents 0.002 nt substitutions per site. Viruses recommended by the World Health Organization for development of candidate pandemic vaccines are indicated with a V; viruses inoculated into ferrets to raise antiserum for hemagglutinin inhibition assays are indicated with an R. Underlined names denote 23 human viruses collected in 2011. Sequences used for full genome analysis in this study are annotated with a dot.
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