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Volume 19, Number 4—April 2013

Letter

Serosurvey of Dogs for Human, Livestock, and Wildlife Pathogens, Uganda

Javier MillánComments to Author , Andrea D. Chirife, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Oscar Cabezón, Jesús Muro, Ignasi Marco, Florence Cliquet, Luis León-Vizcaíno, Marine Wasniewski, Sonia Almería, and Lawrence Mugisha
Author affiliations: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain (J. Millán, A.D. Chirife, O. Cabezón, I. Marco, S. Almería); Conservation through Public Health, Kampala, Uganda (G. Kalema-Zikusoka); Ministry of Agriculture, Andorra la Vella, Andorra (J. Muro); Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Malzéville, France (F. Cliquet, M. Wasniewski); University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain (L. León-Vizcaíno); Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Bellaterra, Spain (S. Almería); Makerere University, Kampala (L. Mugisha); Conservation and Ecosystem Health Alliance, Kampala (L. Mugisha)

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Table

Methodology and seroprevalence for selected pathogens in rural dogs in 3 national parks, Uganda, 2011*

Pathogen Test, cutoff value, and ref or kit National park
All 3 parks
Queen Elizabeth†
Bwindi Impenetrable‡
Mgahinga Gorilla§
Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI) Sample size Prevalence, % (95% CI)
Rabies virus¶ FAVN, 0.24 IU/mL (4) 101 19.8 (12.7–28.6) 23 21.7 (9.0–43.3) 56 19.6 (11.0–32.0) 22 16.7 (5.9–37.2)
CDV c-ELISA, Ingezim Moquillo IgG# 92 100.0 (95.9–100) 30 100 (88.8–100.0) 39 100 (91.4–100.0) 23 100 (85.4–100.0)
CPV c-ELISA, Ingezim CPV# 92 65.2 (54.9–74.5) 26 80.8 (61.7–92.1) 43 76.7 (61.7–87.6) 23 26.1 (12.0–47.8)
Leptospira interrogans** MAT, 1:200 (15) 105 26.7 (19.0–36.1) 27 25.9 (12.4–46.2) 55 29.1 (17.9–42.7) 23 21.7 (9.0–43.3)
Leishmania sp.†† c-ELISA, Ingezim Leishmania# 92 19.6 (12.3–29.2) 26 19.2 (7.9–38.3) 43 25.6 (14.6–40.6) 23 8.7 (1.6–27.8)
Toxoplasma gondii MAT, 1:25 (3) 109 90.8 (83.6–95.1) 30 90.0 (73.7–97.2) 56 98.2 (90.5–99.9) 23 73.9 (52.2–88.0)
Neospora caninum c-ELISA, 30% (3) 109 27.5 (19.6–36.6) 30 26.7 (13.1–45.0) 56 32.1 (21.2–45.5) 23 30.4 (14.5–52.2)

*Ref, reference; FAVN, fluorescent antibody virus neutralization; CPV, canine parvovirus; c-ELISA, competitive ELISA; CDV, canine distemper virus; MAT, modified agglutination test.
†0°12′ S, 30°0′ E (savannah).
‡1°0′ S, 29°42′ E (tropical forest).
§1°16′ S, 29°40′ E (tropical forest).
¶Four dogs vaccinated against rabies in Queen Elizabeth are not included in these results.
#Manufactured by Ingenasa, Madrid, Spain.
**Fourteen serovars were investigated. Of the dogs seropositive, 71.5% were seropositive to 1 serovar and 28.5% to 2 serovars. Reacting serovars were Icterohaemorragiae (42.8% of positive dogs), Canicola (39.2%), Pyrogenes (21.4%), Tarassovi (10.7%), and Gryppothiposa and Australis (7.2% each).
††Antibodies probably correspond to contact with Leishmania donovani.

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