Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013


Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008

John IskanderComments to Author , Raymond A. Strikas, Kathleen F. Gensheimer1, Nancy J. Cox, and Stephen C. Redd
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J. Iskander, R.A. Strikas, N.J. Cox, S.C. Redd); Public Health Consultant, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (K.F. Gensheimer)

Main Article


Timeline of selected key events in pandemic planning, United States, 1978–2008

Year Event Outcome or follow-up
1978 First US pandemic plan, drafted by Federal Interagency Working Group on Influenza Planning workgroup and its process assisted in strategy for addressing 1977–78 influenza A(H1N1) outbreak.
1983 Revision of 1978 US pandemic plan The revised plan laid groundwork for subsequent planning documents.
1988 Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Public Health* The report recognized the need to improve public health surveillance and response.
1992 Options for the Control of Influenza II meeting, Courchevel, France The meeting led to formation of the US Federal interagency Group on Influenza Pandemic Preparedness and Emergency Response in 1993.
1997 Publication of elements of the US pandemic preparedness plan in Journal of Infectious Disease The report updated the action plan, and a further update was published in 2002 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
1998 CDC emerging infectious disease
strategic plan update† Pandemic influenza was noted as an emerging infection.
1999 Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists survey data published Enhanced influenza surveillance was recognized as a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness.
1999 World Health Organization Guidelines for Regional and National Planning The World Health Organization strongly recommended all countries establish National
Pandemic Planning Committees.
2001 Anthrax-related bioterrorism in the United States The federal response increased state/local preparedness funding.
2003 Severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks worldwide The outbreak led to a globally coordinated response to emerging respiratory pathogens.
2003 Initial detection of human avian influenza A(H5N1) cases in China and Vietnam The outbreak enhanced attention to pandemic preparedness by Department of Health and Human Services and the US government, accompanied by additional funding.
2005 Department of Health and Human Services pandemic strategic plan The plan engendered multiple subsequent high-level policy documents and plans from the US government.
2006 Implementation plan for the national strategy for pandemic influenza This plan led to action steps and a timeline for all pandemic planning pillar areas.
2007 Pandemic influenza vaccine allocation guidance‡ This document preceded the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine recommendations

Main Article

1Current affiliation: US Food and Drug Administration, Office of Foods and Veterinary Medicine, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Top of Page The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO