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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Letter

Group C Betacoronavirus in Bat Guano Fertilizer, Thailand

Supaporn WacharapluesadeeComments to Author , Chirapol Sintunawa, Thongchai Kaewpom, Kritsada Khongnomnan, Kevin J. Olival, Jonathan H. Epstein, Apaporn Rodpan, Paiboon Sangsri, Nirun Intarut, Ariya Chindamporn, Kanyarat Suksawa, and Thiravat Hemachudha
Author affiliations: Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand (S. Wacharapluesadee, T. Kaewpom, K. Khongnomnan, A. Rodpan, N. Intarut, A. Chindamporn, K. Suksawa, T. Hemachudha); Mahidol University, Nakornpathom, Thailand (C. Sintunawa); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (K.J. Olival, J.H. Epstein); Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok (P. Sangsri)

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Figure

Phylogenetic tree of 4 coronaviruses (CoVs) isolated from bat guano collected in this study (KCP9, KCP12, KCP15, and KCP31); 35 additional human and animal CoVs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database are included. Construction of the tree was based on 152 nt of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene region by maximum-likelihood method and GTR+I model with the 1,000 bootstrap resampling method implemented in MEGA5 (http://megasoftware.net/). Numbers on branches indicate pe

Figure. . . Phylogenetic tree of 4 coronaviruses (CoVs) isolated from bat guano collected in this study (KCP9, KCP12, KCP15, and KCP31); 35 additional human and animal CoVs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database are included. Construction of the tree was based on 152 nt of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene region by maximum-likelihood method and GTR+I model with the 1,000 bootstrap resampling method implemented in MEGA5 (http://megasoftware.net/). Numbers on branches indicate percentages of bootstrap support from 1,000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the estimated 0.1 nt substitutions per site. CoV genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) based on International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recommendation are indicated (alphaCoV, betaCoV, gammaCoV, and deltaCoV, respectively). BatCoV_HKU8, Miniopterus bat CoV HKU8 (EU420139); HCoV-NL63, human CoV NL63 (JX524171); PEDV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (NC_003436); BatCoV 512, Scotophilus bat CoV 512 (DQ648858); HCoV-229E, human CoV 229E (NC_002645); BatCoV-HKU2, Rhinolophus bat CoV HKU2 (EF203064); TGEV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (AJ271965); FIPV, feline CoV (DQ010921); HCoV-HKU1C, human CoV HKU1C (DQ415913); HCoV-HKU1A, human CoV HKU1A (DQ415903); HCoV-HKU1B, human CoV HKU1B (AY884001); MHV, murine hepatitis virus (NC001846); HCoV-OC43, human CoV OC43 (AY585229); PHEV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (DQ011855); BCoV, bovine CoV (AF391541); BatCoV-HKU9, Rousettus bat CoV HKU9 (NC009021); BatCoV/KW2E-F93/Nyc, Nycteris bat CoV (JX899383); BatCoV/KW2E-F53/Nyc, Nycteris bat CoV (JX899384); BatCoV/KW2E-F82/Nyc, Nycteris bat CoV (JX899382); BatCoV HKU4, Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (NC009019); BatCoV HKU5, Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (NC_009020); HCoV-EMC, human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (JX869059); England1_CoV, human betacoronavirus England 1 (NC_019843); SARS_BatCoV HKU3, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–related Rhinolophus bat CoV HKU3 (DQ022305); SARSr-CoV-CFB, SARS-related Chinese ferret badger CoV (AY545919); SARSr-ciCoV, SARS-related palm civet CoV (AY304488); SARS_huSARS-CoV, SARS human CoV (NC_004718); IBV_Partridge, avian infectious bronchitis virus partridge (AY646283.1); IBV_Peafowl, avian infectious bronchitis virus isolate Peafowl (AY641576); IBV_Beaudette, infectious bronchitis virus strain Beaudette CK (AJ311317); WiCoV HKU20, wigeon CoV HKU20 (NC_016995); NHCoV HKU19, night heron CoV HKU19 (NC_016994); ThCoV HKU12, thrush CoV HKU12 (FJ376621); PorCoV HKU15, porcine CoV HKU15 (NC_016990); MRCoV HKU18, magpie robin CoV HKU18 (NC_016993).

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