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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013

Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013   PDF Version [PDF - 10.46 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

  • The New Global Health PDF Version [PDF - 271 KB - 6 pages]
    K. M. De Cock et al.
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    Strong public health institutions and networks are needed to address evolving challenges.

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    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  • Norovirus Disease in the United States PDF Version [PDF - 665 KB - 8 pages]
    A. J. Hall et al.
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    Findings support development of interventions for this disease.

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    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates for the United States. Norovirus causes an average of 570–800 deaths, 56,000–71,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 emergency department visits, 1.7–1.9 million outpatient visits, and 19–21 million total illnesses per year. Persons >65 years of age are at greatest risk for norovirus-associated death, and children <5 years of age have the highest rates of norovirus-associated medical care visits. Endemic norovirus disease occurs year round but exhibits a pronounced winter peak and increases by ≤50% during years in which pandemic strains emerge. These findings support continued development and targeting of appropriate interventions, including vaccines, for norovirus disease.

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae among Travelers from the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 2.23 MB - 8 pages]
    S. Paltansing et al.
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    Colonization with potentially multidrug-resistant bacteria was discovered at an elevated rate among returning travelers.

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    A prospective cohort study was performed among travelers from the Netherlands to investigate the acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CP-E) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and associated risk factors. Questionnaires were administered and rectal swabs were collected and tested before and after return. Of 370 travelers, 32 (8.6%) were colonized with ESBL-E before travel; 113 (30.5%) acquired an ESBL-E during travel, and 26 were still colonized 6 months after return. No CP-E were found. Independent risk factors for ESBL-E acquisition were travel to South and East Asia. Multilocus sequence typing showed extensive genetic diversity among Escherichia coli. Predominant ESBLs were CTX-M enzymes. The acquisition rate, 30.5%, of ESBL-E in travelers from the Netherlands to all destinations studied was high. Active surveillance for ESBL-E and CP-E and contact isolation precautions may be recommended at admission to medical facilities for patients who traveled to Asia during the previous 6 months.

  • Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States PDF Version [PDF - 1.36 MB - 8 pages]
    B. Rha et al.
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    These data estimated the onset, peak, and end of norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates.

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    Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, BioSense visits mapped by chief complaints of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007–2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828–0.926) than for nausea/vomiting (R = 0.729–0.866) across multiple age groups. Diarrhea ED visit proportions exhibited winter seasonality attributable to norovirus; rotavirus contributed substantially for children <5 years of age. Diarrhea ED visit data estimated the onset, peak, and end of norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates and could be reliable, timely indicators of norovirus activity.

  • Aichi Virus in Sewage and Surface Water, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 1.17 MB - 9 pages]
    W. J. Lodder et al.
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    High rates of detection indicate that this virus is common in the human population in this country.

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    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987–2000 and 2009–2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987–2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009–2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country.

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Effects and Clinical Significance of GII.4 Sydney Norovirus, United States, 2012–2013 PDF Version [PDF - 661 KB - 8 pages]
    E. Leshem et al.
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    Surveillance and emergency department data showed that GII.4 Sydney did not cause a substantial increase in norovirus activity.

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    During 2012, global detection of a new norovirus (NoV) strain, GII.4 Sydney, raised concerns about its potential effect in the United States. We analyzed data from NoV outbreaks in 5 states and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in 1 state during the 2012–13 season and compared the data with those of previous seasons. During August 2012–April 2013, a total of 637 NoV outbreaks were reported compared with 536 and 432 in 2011–2012 and 2010–2011 during the same period. The proportion of outbreaks attributed to GII.4 Sydney increased from 8% in September 2012 to 82% in March 2013. The increase in emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during the 2012–13 season was similar to that of previous seasons. GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012–13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons.

  • Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica Serotypes and Food Commodities, United States, 1998–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 365 KB - 6 pages]
    B. R. Jackson et al.
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    Serotype–food commodity associations will aid health officials in preventing illnesses.

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    Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998–2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Hadar were attributed to eggs or poultry, whereas >50% of outbreaks caused by serotypes Javiana, Litchfield, Mbandaka, Muenchen, Poona, and Senftenberg were attributed to plant commodities. Serotypes Typhimurium and Newport were associated with a wide variety of food commodities. Knowledge about these associations can help guide outbreak investigations and control measures.

  • Comparison of 2 Assays for Diagnosing Rotavirus and Evaluating Vaccine Effectiveness in Children with Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 543 KB - 8 pages]
    J. E. Tate et al.
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    The use of enzyme immunoassays is recommended for evaluating vaccine effectiveness.

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    We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of disease that was vaccine preventable. Of 648 AGE patients, 158 (24%) were EIA positive, and 157 were also qRT-PCR positive. An additional 65 (10%) were qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative. Of 500 healthy controls, 1 was EIA positive and 24 (5%) were qRT-PCR positive. Rotavirus vaccine was highly effective (84% [95% CI 71%–91%]) in EIA-positive children but offered no significant protection (14% [95% CI −105% to 64%]) in EIA-negative children for whom virus was detected by qRT-PCR alone. Children with rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR but not by EIA were not protected by vaccination, suggesting that rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR alone might not be causally associated with AGE in all patients.

  • Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase– and AmpC-Producing Enterobacteria in Healthy Broiler Chickens, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 775 KB - 7 pages]
    F. Reich et al.
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    During slaughtering, chickens transfer resistance into the food chain.

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    During 2010, we evaluated the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase– and AmpC-producing enterobacteria in broiler chickens at slaughter. Samples (70 carcasses and 51 ceca) from 4 flocks were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers were found in 88.6% and 72.5% of carcasses and ceca, respectively; AmpC producers were found in 52.9% and 56.9% of carcasses and ceca, respectively. Most isolates were identified as Escherichia coli; Enterobacter cloacae (cecum) and Proteus mirabilis (carcass) were found in 2 samples each. Molecular characterization revealed the domination of CTX-M genes; plasmidic AmpC was CIT-like. Phylogenetic grouping of E. coli showed types A (31.5%), B1 (20.2%), B2 (13.5%), and D (34.8%). These findings provide evidence that healthy broilers in Germany are a source for the dissemination of transmissible resistance mechanisms in enterobacteria brought from the rearing environment into the food chain during slaughtering.

  • Duration of Immunity to Norovirus Gastroenteritis PDF Version [PDF - 482 KB - 8 pages]
    K. Simmons et al.
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    This modeling study suggests that the duration is 5–6 years; a vaccine that protects for that period could have substantial health and economic benefits.

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    The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model was parameterized from the literature and also fit to age-specific incidence data from England and Wales by using maximum likelihood. We developed several scenarios to determine the effect of unknowns regarding transmission and immunity on estimates of the duration of immunity. In the various models, duration of immunity to NoV gastroenteritis was estimated at 4.1 (95% CI 3.2–5.1) to 8.7 (95% CI 6.8–11.3) years. Moreover, we calculated that children (<5 years) are much more infectious than older children and adults. If a vaccine can achieve protection for duration of natural immunity indicated by our results, its potential health and economic benefits could be substantial.

  • Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 546 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Hyeon et al.
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    Enterovirus surveillance sensitivity increased as diagnostic methods improved.

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    The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes.

Policy Review

  • Impact of 2003 State Regulation on Raw Oyster–associated Vibrio vulnificus Illnesses and Deaths, California, USA PDF Version [PDF - 1.00 MB - 5 pages]
    D. J. Vugia et al.
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    After regulation was implemented, the number of cases and deaths dropped significantly; a similar national regulation would likely decrease US infections.

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    US vibriosis rates have increased since 1996, and many Vibrio vulnificus infections are fatal. In April 2003, California implemented a regulation restricting the sale of raw oysters harvested from the Gulf of Mexico during April 1–October 31, unless they were processed to reduce V. vulnificus to nondetectable levels. We analyzed California cases of V. vulnificus infection before and after the regulation’s implementation and compared case data with data from other states. The annual number of reported V. vulnificus infections and deaths in California with patient’s sole exposure to raw oysters dropped from 0 to 6 cases and 0 to 5 deaths per year during 1991–2002, before implementation, to 0 during 2003–2010, after implementation (p = 0.0005 for both). In other states, median annual numbers of similar cases and deaths increased slightly after 2002. The data strongly suggest that the 2003 regulation led to a significant reduction in reported raw oyster–associated V. vulnificus illnesses and deaths.

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