Rotavirus G9P in 3 Countries in Latin America, 2009–2010
Osbourne Quaye1, Sharla McDonald, Mathew D. Esona, Freda C. Lyde, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Sunando Roy, Dina J. Castro Banegas, Yolanda Mencos Quiñonez, Blanca L. Chinchilla, Fabián Gómez Santiago, Herlinda García Lozano, Gloria Rey-Benito, Lúcia H. de Oliveira, Jon R. Gentsch, and Michael D. Bowen
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (O. Quaye, S. McDonald, M.D. Esona, F.C. Lyde, S. Mijatovic-Rustempasic, S. Roy, J.R. Gentsch, M.D. Bowen); Nacional Colonia La Campaña, Tegucigalpa, Honduras (D. J. Castro Banegas); Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala (Y. Mencos Quiñonez, B.L. Chinchilla); Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos, Mexico City, Mexico (F. Gómez Santiago, H. García Lozano); Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA (G. Rey-Benito, L.H. de Oliveira)
Figure. . Maximum-likelihood phylograms indicating genetic relationships of nucleotide sequences of A) viral protein 7 (VP7), B) VP4, C) VP6, and D) nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) genes of human G9P group A rotavirus (RVA) strains from Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, and sequences of human and animal RVA strains from GenBank. Partial VP4 (VP8* region), VP7 and VP6 gene sequences (742, 783, and 1,155 bases, respectively) and complete gene sequences of NSP4 (528 bases) were aligned with cognate reference strain sequences by using ClustalW in MEGA 5.05 (http://megasoftware.net/mega.php). The optimal evolutionary model that best fit each sequence dataset was identified by using MEGA 5.05. Maximum-likelihood trees were constructed by using SEAVIEW version 4 (www.seaviewfishing.com/DownloadSoftware.html), and approximate likelihood ratio test (aLRT) statistics were computed for estimation of branch support. On the basis of Akaike information criteria with a correction for finite sample sizes, we selected the Tamura-Nei plus gamma, general time reversible plus gamma, general time reversible plus invariant sites, and Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano plus gamma models for genes VP4, VP7, VP6, and NSP4, respectively. Trees are drawn to scale. Only aLRT values ≥70% are shown. Solid circles indicate G9P strains from Mexico, squares indicate G9P strains from Guatemala, and solid inverted triangles indicate G9P strains from Honduras sequenced in this study. Scale bars indicate genetic distances. MEX, Mexico; GTM, Guatemala; HND, Honduras; MUS, Mauritius; GHA, Ghana; ZAF, South Africa; IND, India; THA, Thailand; BRA, Brazil; NGA, Nigeria; CMR, Cameroon; KEN, Kenya; CHN, China; MWI, Malawi; USA, United States; VNM, Vietnam; JPN, Japan; GBR, United Kingdom; RUS, Russia; BGD, Bangladesh; DEU, Germany; PHL, The Philippines; ITA, Italy; BEL, Belgium; ARG, Argentina.
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