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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013


Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States

Brian RhaComments to Author , Sherry Burrer, Soyoun Park, Tarak Trivedi, Umesh D. Parashar, and Benjamin A. Lopman
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (B. Rha, S. Burrer, S. Park, T. Trivedi, U.D. Parashar, B.A. Lopman); McKing Consulting Corporation, Atlanta (S. Park)

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Table 2

Parameters of linear regression models of the association between norovirus outbreaks and BioSense emergency department diarrhea subsyndrome visit data, by state, United States, January 2007–April 2010*

State no. Total no. emergency department visits/mo Norovirus,† β1, × 10−4 (95% CI) p value‡ R
1 273,218 2.86 (1.72 to 4.00) <0.0001 0.858
137,584 6.91 (4.60 to 9.22) <0.0001 0.809
66,597 3.79 (2.74 to 4.83) <0.0001 0.832
21,684 7.06 (0.73 to 13.40) 0.0298 0.637
5,214 2.18 (1.57 to 2. 78) <0.0001 0.800
6§¶ 836 0.53 (−8.77 to 9.84) 0.9082 0.133

*Emergency department chief complaint–based visits for diarrhea subsyndrome as a monthly proportion of all visits regressed on norovirus surveillance data, rotavirus antigen test data, and time variable. Intercept for each model p<0.0001.
†Suspected and confirmed norovirus outbreaks.
‡By t test.
¶Time variable not significant in model (p>0.05).
§Proportion of rotavirus tests positive variable not significant in model (p>0.05).

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