Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014

Letter

Rabies in Henan Province, China, 2010–2012

Suggested citation for this article

To the Editor: Rabies is considered a reemerging zoonosis in China because many cases have been reported in recent years (1). The first case of rabies in Henan Province was reported in 1951. No more than 10 cases were reported per year during 1995–2001. However, beginning in 2002, the number of cases increased exponentially each year, and reached >100 in 2005 (2). To identify the epidemic characteristics of rabies in Henan Province, we examined the archived data of cases during 2010–2012. The surveillance data were collected by the Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through systematic reporting and reports from sentinel hospitals.

Henan Province is situated in the mid-eastern region of China between northern latitudes 31°23′–36°22′ and eastern longitudes 110°21′–116°39′. The climate zone spans from warm temperate to subtropical, is humid to semi-humid with risk for monsoons, and has average annual temperatures ranging from 12°C to 16°C. The province occupies an area of 165,994 km2 divided into 18 municipalities, which are subdivided into 159 county-level divisions. Its population was reported to be ≈94 million in 2010 (3).

During 2010–2012, a total of 94 cases of rabies in humans were reported in Henan Province. Rabies was diagnosed in almost all of those cases in sentinel hospitals on the basis of clinical features of the disease. Rabies was confirmed in <10 patients by using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test in the Henan CDC. This test is performed by mixing different dilutions of test serum samples with a constant number of rabies virus isolates in a multichambered slide (4).

The number of patients in whom rabies was diagnosed in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 31, 31, and 32, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of the disease during this period was 0.031 cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was no significant difference in occurrence of the disease during each year of the study period (χ2 = 0.021, p = 0.989). Rabies was reported in 13 (72.2%) of 18 municipalities and 53 (33.3%) of 159 counties (Technical Appendix [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page] Figure).

Patients who tested positive for rabies were reported during all seasons, but more were reported during summer. Of the 94 cases, 33 (35%) were reported in summer months; the largest number of cases in 1 month (n = 15) was reported during September.

The age of the patients with rabies ranged from 2 to 83 years. The disease was most often found in persons 45–60 years of age (n = 36) and was reported least frequently in persons 15–30 years of age (n = 4). The male-to-female ratio of persons in whom rabies was diagnosed was 1.9:1.0 (n = 62 males, 32 females). The age and sex of these patients were similar to those of rabies-infected persons reported in the past in Henan or in other parts of China (5,6). Nearly all the patients with rabies were exposed to the virus through dog bites; 1 patient was exposed by being scratched by a cat. Most patients (n = 87 [92.5%]) died within 2 days of being exposed; 3 patients (3.2%) died within 9 days. The date of death was not recorded for 4 patients (4.3%).Three patients who died had received rabies vaccine after being bitten by dogs.

Rabies is a fatal infectious disease and remains a public health problem in China (1). In Henan Province, the increase in the number of rabies cases parallels the increase in the number of dogs (7). Nearly one third of China’s provinces reported rabies in this survey; the number of cases reported in the central region was much higher than that in other regions (Technical Appendix [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page]Figure). This may be related to the growing economy in the central region and a resulting increase in the number of people who keep dogs.

With regard to patient characteristics, the proportions of farmers, children, and students who had rabies were 72.3%, 9.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. The larger number of infected farmers could have been affected by many factors. The high cost of rabies vaccine and the lack of prompt treatment were related to many additional deaths. The number of children and student case-patients was 21 (22.4%). This high percentage may indicate that these groups need additional protection. Regarding the patient who was infected by cat scratch, there had been no reports of rabies in cats in China before this incident (8). Thus, we should be aware of this possible route of infection.

In summary, the severity of rabies and its increased incidence present a public health threat, and appropriate control strategies in Henan province are needed. A new rabies control system should be established that includes cooperation of the various health care sectors to provide protection to the public.

Guo-Wei Li1, Zhen-Yu Qu1, Alfred King-Yin Lam, Jian-Guo Wang, Feng-Lan Gao, Tong-Xing Deng, and Jia-Hai LuComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Zhengzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, China (G.-W. Li); Luohe Medical College, Luohe, China (Z.-Y. Qu, J.-G. Wang, F.-L. Gao,T.-X. Deng); School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China (G.-W. Li, J.-H. Lu); School of Medicine and Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (A.K.-Y. Lam).

Acknowledgments

We thank Bin Qiao of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China, for his assistance in improving this manuscript.

This work was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of Luohe Medical College (No:010S02) to Z.-Y. Q.

References

  1. Zhang YZ, Xiong CL, Xiao DL, Jiang RJ, Wang ZX, Zhang LZ, Human rabies in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:19834. DOIPubMed
  2. Sun JW, Hao ZY, Zhang YZ, Zhang YP, Zhang AM. XIong CL, et al. Investigation on the epidemiology of rabies in Henan Province [in Chinese]. Mod Prev Med. 2007;15:2873–5. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XDYF200715029.htm
  3. The People’s Government of Henan Province. The physical geography of Henan [in Chinese]. Henan Province, Chin. 2011 [cited 2013 Dec 18]. http://www.henan.gov.cn/hngk/system/2011/03/04/010233529.shtml
  4. Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. Diagnostic criteria for rabies (ratified by Ministry of Health). WS281–2008 [in Chinese]. People’s Sanitation Publishing Co., Beijing. 2008; 9:6–7.
  5. Hao ZY, Zhang YZ, Sun JW, XIong CL, Zhang YP, Wang HF,. Analysis of pathogenesis and epidemical characteristics of human rabies in Henan Province from 2000 to 2005. [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28:720.
  6. Montgomery JP, Zhang Y, Wells EV, Liu Y, Clayton JL, Wang X, Human rabies in Tianjin, China. J Public Health (Oxf). 2012;34:50511. DOIPubMed
  7. Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The status of prevention and control of Rabies in China [in Chinese]. People’s Sanitation Publishing Co., Beijing, 2009;9:2.
  8. Belotto A, Leanes LF, Schneider MC, Tamayo H, Correa E. Overview of rabies in the Americas. Virus Res. 2005;111:512. DOIPubMed

Technical Appendix

Suggested citation for this article: Li GW, Qu ZY, Lam AKY, Wang JG, Gao FL, Deng TX, et al. Rabies in Henan Province, China, 2010–2012 [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2002.131056

DOI: 10.3201/eid2002.131056

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Related Links

Table of Contents – Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014

Comments to the Authors

Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Jia-Hai Lu, School of Public Health, State Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control Research, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2 Rd, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510080, People’s Republic of ChinaJia-Hai Lu, School of Public Health, State Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control Research, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2 Rd, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510080, People’s Republic of China

character(s) remaining.

Comment submitted successfully, thank you for your feedback.

Comments to the EID Editors

Please contact the EID Editors via our Contact Form.

TOP